Technologies

Zaï forestier [Burkina Faso]

Tissé zaï (mooré)

technologies_1182 - Burkina Faso

Completeness: 80%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Kini Janvier

Université de Ouagadougou

Burkina Faso

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles (INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles) - Burkina Faso

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Ja

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

Geen

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Les zaï forestier est une technique de réhabilitation des terres dans le but de régénérer la végétation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

La technique consiste à creuser des trous de 1 m de diamètre et de 50 à 70 cm de profondeur dans lesquels on met de la matière organique et on y plante des arbres en hivernage. Il est l’œuvre d’un paysan innovateur Yacouba Sawadogo

L’objectif est de régénérer la couverture végétale et de réhabiliter la terre en collectant des eaux de ruissellement pendant l'hivernage et la saison sèche. La technique vise aussi à lutter contre la désertification et de réintroduire des espèces disparues et utilitaires en disparition notamment dans le domaine de la pharmacopée.

Les trous sont creusés à l’aide de pic-à-axe et de barre à mine. La terre excavée entièrement et la fumure organique produite dans la fosse fumière est introduite en raison de 5 pelletées (variables selon l’espèce). Les graines sont semées dans le trou (pas des plants à partir d’une pépinière). Il est pratiqué sur des sols de type latéritique, gravillonnaire ou dénudé.
Il faut beaucoup surveiller le plant afin d’éviter qu’il soit mangé par les termites ainsi que des animaux. Les intrants sont constitués essentiellement des semences des espèces ligneuses à régénérer ainsi que de la main d’œuvre, la matière organique, le petit équipement (pelle, brouette, pic-à-ace, baril). NB : l’exploitant de la technologie a un forage sur les lieux.

Il faut un sol latérite gravillonnaire ou dénudé. Le travail est individuel mais nécessite une main d’œuvre importante.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Burkina Faso

Region/ State/ Province:

Burkina Faso / Yatenga

Further specification of location:

Nord /Ouahigouya

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

0.1

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Comments:

0,1 km2. C'est une technologie traditionnelle de régénération de la végétation par le zaï.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

L’expérimentation a commencé en 1985 et est encore au stade d’un seul individu

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Ja

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - grasses
  • andropogon, pennicetum
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
  • grapes
  • combretum, guiera, baobab
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Acacia albida
  • combretum, guiera, baobab
Comments:

Problèmes principaux: Erosion des sols (apparition des rigoles et des ravines), une baisse notable de la fertilité des terres (Zippela) et une disparition de la végétation. Ruissellements intenses lors de fortes pluies. Absence d’herbes (fourrages) pour les animaux. Baisse des rendements des cultures. Baisse des rendements des cultures, insuffisance de fourrages; Érosion des sols (apparition des rigoles et des ravines), manque de terres de bonne qualité.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • natural and semi-natural forest management
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S4: Level ditches, pits
management measures

management measures

  • M5: Control/ change of species composition
Comments:

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues, pits
Type of vegetative measures: scattered / dispersed

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
Comments:

Causes de dégradation: soil management, crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), change of seasonal rainfall, droughts, population pressure, over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, overgrazing, industrial activities and mining, change in temperature, wind storms / dust storms, poverty / wealth, labour availability, inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …), education, access to knowledge and support services, governance / institutional

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Author:

Sounkali SERME, INERA BP: 49 Tougan, BF

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Franc CFA

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

500.0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

8.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Trouaison Saison sèche
2. Trouaison saison sèche

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour main d'oevre ha 1.0 120.0 120.0 100.0
Equipment tools ha 1.0 96.8 96.8 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides fertilizer ha 1.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 316.8
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 0.63
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Surveillance des plants annuel

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour main d'oevre ha 1.0 10.0 10.0 100.0
Equipment tools ha 1.0 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 15.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 0.03
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: pic-à-casse, barre à mine, charrette, brouette.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Le coût de la main d’œuvre, de l’équipement nécessaire ainsi que le coût de la fumure constituent les principaux déterminants des coûts de mise en œuvre de cette technologie.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: tropics. car tous les mois sont au dessus de 18°C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

for agricultural use only (irrigation)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Gender:
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Difference in the involvement of women and men: Manque de main d’œuvre et de temps pour les femmes
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
1% of the land users are very rich.
1% of the land users are rich.
50% of the land users are average wealthy.
45% of the land users are poor.
3% of the land users are poor.
Off-farm income specification: transferts reçus, l’artisanat, le commerce...
Market orientation of production system: Pharmacopée

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual
Comments:

les terres agricoles ne se vendent pas alors que l’eau est librement accessible à tous

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased

animal production

decreased
increased

wood production

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified
Water availability and quality

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

health situation

worsened
improved

contribution pour le bien-être

Comments/ specify:

Car l’accroissement de la production d’arbres engendre un accroissement de revenu forestier permettant d’accéder à ces services sociaux de base. Cela contribue à combler les déficits

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
local windstorm not known
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not known

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

Car les exploitants investissent toujours lorsque le résultat est positif

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 11-50%
Comments:

C’est un seul exploitant qui expérimente la technologie pour l’heure. Mais au regard des résultats, elle fera tache d’huile sur la population dans son ensemble. Il bénéficie d’un appui externe allemand (forage construit sur l’exploitation).
En fin 2013, 8 exploitants ont réalisé le zaï forestier dans la zone.

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: en 2013, 8 nouveaux exploitants sont entrain d’expérimenter la technologie.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
La technologie de zaï forestier permet d'augmenter la diversité végétale
La technologie de zaï forestier permet de favoriser la disponibilité accrue en bois
La technologie de zaï forestier permet la possibilité d’accroître l’offre de soins traditionnels
La technologie de zaï forestier permet d'accroitre la source de bois de feu
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
La technologie de zaï forestier permet d'augmenter les espèces végétales
La technologie de zaï forestier permet d'augmenter les rendements en bois
La technologie de zaï forestier permet d'augmenter les revenus forestiers

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
L'utilisation plus importante de la main-d’œuvre constitue un frein à la réalisation du zaï forestier L'utilisation de la mécanisation peut aider à réduire la main-d’œuvre
L'insuffisance de moyens financiers est aussi un frein au zaï forestier Une subvention et des crédits en moyen matériels peut aider à obtenir de meilleurs résultats
La divagation des animaux ne permet pas de réussir le zaï forestier La construction des lieux de pâture peut aider à limiter le dégât des animaux
Les problèmes fonciers limitent considérablement la réalisation de la technologie du zaï forestier il est nécessaire de veiller à la sécurisation foncière afin de profiter du za¨forestier
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
L'utilisation plus importante de la main-d’œuvre constitue un frein à la réalisation du zaï forestier L'utilisation de la mécanisation peut aider à réduire la main-d’œuvre
L'insuffisance de moyens financiers est aussi un frein au zaï forestier Une subvention et des crédits en moyen matériels peut aider à obtenir de meilleurs résultats
La divagation des animaux ne permet pas de réussir le zaï forestier La construction des lieux de pâture peut aider à limiter le dégât des animaux
Les problèmes fonciers limitent considérablement la réalisation de la technologie du zaï forestier il est nécessaire de veiller à la sécurisation foncière afin de profiter du za¨forestier

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

25/08/2013

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