Technologies

Irrigation of uplands through Hydraulic Flange Pump [Afghanistan]

Aabyari zamin hai boland Aaba thawasut Pump_e_Aabi_Charkhdar

technologies_1731 - Afghanistan

Completeness: 82%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
People in Need (PIN) (People in Need (PIN)) - Afghanistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

18/05/2016

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Ja

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Technology for lifting water to uplands: hydraulic flange pump, reservoir and pipe scheme.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

This technology is documented by the Sustainable Land Management Project, implemented by HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation and funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), with close support and cooperation of People in Need.
Samangan, Khuram wa Sarbagh district, Klor-e-Bala village is situated in a mountainous region where the greatest limiting factor to agricultural production is water. Arable lands are located far away from water sources. Lack of technology to exploit these lands prohibits villagers to cultivate their land to make a livelihood. Therefore, families are compelled to leave their village during summer.

Purpose of the Technology: To address this problem, People in Need (PIN), with financial support from GIZ and the Czech Embassy (CzDA) introduced irrigation through hydraulic flange pump. The hydraulic flange pump provides water to 30 orchards of Klor-e-Bala village, drinking water to the 43 village households, the mosque and the school of 500 students.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The main water source which starts and runs the hydraulic flange pump is the Khuwaja Hayat spring. The spring water arrives to the hydraulic flange pump from 1.8 meter height on a 12 percent slope in 200 meters distance from the water source. The water flow passes through the intake and moves towards the water wheel which starts/runs the hydraulic flange pump. The water is then pumped through three pipes of one inch to the reservoir. The hydraulic flange pump has the capacity of lifting water up to 250 meters.
The reservoir’s storage capacity is 25,600 liters of water with the dimensions as follows: 4.9 meter length; 2.9 m width; and 1.8 m height. It has two outlets: a spill way fitted with three pipes of one inch at the top of the reservoir and two outlets fitted with two pipes of three inches at the bottom. The lower outlet leads water to the orchards by diverting water after 40 meters into two pipes which are 1,000 meters long. Each orchard is connected to one of these two pipes by a T-connector and the water flows into a tin water tank with the capacity of 1,000 liters for each orchard. The two pipes are extended as far as the school which is located near the orchards and has been equipped with a 2000 liters tin water tank.
The hydraulic flange pump is made locally in Taloqan city, Takhar province of Afghanistan in the Baradaran-e- Kargar workshop. The pump costs 140,000 Afghani/ 2,200 US$, including installment. The estimated cost of the construction of the reservoir and the pump’s room including the hydraulic flange pump is 19,000 US$. The pipe scheme of the project was installed by the Community Development Council (CDC) with technical support from PIN’s engineering team. Community members contributed 10 percent of the costs as labor. As Klor-e-Bala village is situated in flood prone area and flooding is a common occurrence, PIN, with funding from the GIZ, constructed in 2015 two protection walls, 45 m and 55 m in length, on both sides of the river, to minimize erosion and protect the pump’s intake from floods. The protection walls were built through cash for work programme, but community members provided 10 percent contribution through labor and by providing stones for construction. The total estimated cost of the hydraulic flange pump, reservoir and pipe scheme technology amounted to 37,000 US$.
Furthermore, in order to maintain the technology, a caretaker, who lives close to the pump’s room has been appointed. The caretaker was trained by the technician who installed the hydraulic flange pump and has voluntarily taken the responsibility of maintenance activities; changing the oil and cleaning of the hydraulic flange pump's room and changing of the pipes in case of need. The owners of the orchards have to cover for all maintenance costs and the chairman of the Community Development Council (CDC) has the responsibility of managing the money for maintenance and other recurrent activities.
The flange pump technology contributed to the economic growth of the community members by increasing the orchards’ yields. Currently, the hydraulic flange pump irrigates 12 jireb/2.4 ha (30*800m2) orchards of apple, apricot, almond, pear and cherry trees. In addition to the orchards, alfalfa, potato, vegetables and other crops are as well cultivated on these lands. Furthermore, the pump supports the community members to settle year-round in their villages and prevents from their seasonal displacement. Moreover, the flange pump enables the provision of drinking water to the whole community and the school.

Natural / human environment: Samangan is one of the northern provinces of Afghanistan. Wheat, melons, pistachio,
almonds, potatoes, onions and caraway are important crops and Karakul sheep
and goats the main livestock for meat, dairy, and wool production. Rugs are the
main handicraft of this area. Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district in Samangan has two growing
seasons, the longest of which is 150 days from February to June and the second is 90
days from June to September. The average rainfall is below 500mm and the climate semi-arid.
The community members have limited access to off farm employment, market, energy,
financial services, roads and transportation and moderate access to health and education.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Afghanistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Samangan

Further specification of location:

Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district, Klor_e_Bala village

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • access to water

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Grazing land

Grazing land

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Lack of safe drinking and irrigation water which makes agricultural activities difficult.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Lack of cultivation due to the scarcity of water. High workloads and small incomes.

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Mf: Agroforestry

If land use has changed due to the implementation of the Technology, indicate land use before implementation of the Technology:

Other: Ow: Waterways, drainage lines, ponds, dams

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 150; Longest growing period from month to month: February - June; Second longest growing period in days: 90; Second longest growing period from month to month: June - September

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • natural and semi-natural forest management
  • agroforestry
  • irrigation management (incl. water supply, drainage)

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2
Comments:

The technology area which is considered here is the distance from the water area where the machine exists to the reservoir and reservoir to the orchard and crop land.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

structural measures

structural measures

  • S5: Dams, pans, ponds

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
Comments:

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Bq: quantity / biomass decline

Main causes of degradation: disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff), droughts, education, access to knowledge and support services

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Author:

Eng. Saboor Popal, People In Need (PIN)

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

A detailed technical drawing of the hydraulic flange pump and the reservoir, Klor-e-Bala village, Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district, Samangan province.

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), water harvesting / increase water supply, water spreading

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • US Dollars
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

7.00

4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Excavation of the foundation Structural
2. Construction activities,Stone masonry foundation and wall: Structural
3. a:P.C.C concrete foundationb:R.C.C concretec:Iron shattering for walls, roof and floord:External and internal pointing Structural
4. a:Plasteringb:Steel barsc:Door and window Structural
5. Pipe scheme:a:Pipesb:Water tanksc:other equipmentd:Skilled and unskilled labor Structural
6. Procurement of the Hydraulic flange pump Structural

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Excavation of the foundation square meters 50.0 2.88 144.0 10.0
Labour Excavation of the foundation cubic meters 161.0 2.4037 387.0 10.0
Labour Skilled and unskilled labor persons/day 343.0 9.47521 3250.0 10.0
Equipment Water tanks pieces 39.0 98.615384 3846.0 10.0
Equipment Pipes meter 2900.0 2.9241379 8480.0 10.0
Equipment Other equipment all 1.0 2424.0 2424.0 10.0
Equipment Procurement of the Hydraulic flange pump pieces 1.0 2200.0 2200.0 10.0
Construction material Concrete foundation cubic meters 12.23 96.64758 1182.0 10.0
Construction material Concrete cubic meters 8.4 114.0476 958.0 10.0
Construction material Iron shattering for walls, roof and floor cubic meters 110.0 4.86363 535.0 10.0
Construction material External and internal pointing square meters 226.0 2.85398 645.0 10.0
Construction material Plastering square meters 32.0 5.9375 190.0 10.0
Construction material Steel bars square meters 364.4 1.21844 444.0 10.0
Construction material Door and window square meters 3.98 28.8944 115.0 10.0
Construction material Stones square meters 244.0 50.0 12200.0 10.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 37000.0
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 7 month(s)

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Changing of the pipes Structural Once a year
2. Cleaning of the flange pump room Structural Six times a year
3. Changing of the hydraulic flange pump oil Structural

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Changing of the pipes persons/day 1.0 7.0 7.0 100.0
Labour Cleaning of the flange pump room persons/day 1.0 7.0 7.0 100.0
Labour Changing of the hydraulic flange pump oil persons/day 1.0 7.0 7.0 100.0
Equipment Pipes meter 20.0 0.65 13.0 100.0
Equipment Oil times/year 4.0 4.5 18.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 52.0

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labor, stone and equipment are the main fundamental factors which need high initial investments.
After a couple of years pipes may need to be changed.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium

Soil water storage capacity is low

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Nomadic
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Gender:
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly disadvantaged land users

Difference in the involvement of women and men: Constructional activities which are done outside of the houses and compounds are mainly applied by men in Afghanistan.

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

100% of the land users are poor.

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased

product diversity

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified
Water availability and quality

drinking water availability

decreased
increased

water availability for livestock

decreased
increased

water quality for livestock

decreased
increased

irrigation water availability

decreased
increased

irrigation water quality

decreased
increased
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

In case the owner of the first orchard do not obey the water use right

livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

The pump improved households’ economy through increasing agricultural yieIds and by decreasing the need for a generator pump. It has as well reduced the workload of the community members

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

salinity

increased
decreased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

plant diversity

decreased
increased

animal diversity

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

It has decreased the water flow only in the place where the hydraulic flange pump is installed.

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
annual rainfall increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not known
local windstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
flash flood not well
Other climate-related extremes (disasters)
other (specify) How does the Technology cope with it?
length of growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very negative

Long-term returns:

slightly positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 10-50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

98 households covering 50 percent of the stated area

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

98 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Due to high expenses of the implementation of the technology, it has not been applied without any external support.

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: The technology is of a high cost and needs external support to be established.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Application of the technology has reduced the workload for the families.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Greater awareness on water management can be created by training/workshop for the water users.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The technology has supported the community members economically by increasing agricultural yields. Moreover, it contributes to reduce the costs of water during the summer season.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The land users should try to plant local and native trees and cultivate the crops which are adapted to the land.Community members should actively participate in maintenance activities.
Provides safe drinking water to the 43 households and the
school at low cost.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Pipe scheme and cover of the reservoir, should be cleaned regularly. If any leakages occurs in the pipes or reservoir, they should be sealed. Water taps and water tanks should be properly maintained.
This technology has been applied in a low slope/latitude where the water flows with a very low speed and the application of other technologies was difficult.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Protect from sedimentation.
The hydraulic flange pump is produced locally. Procurement and installment of the pump contributes therefore to local economic growth and private sector development.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Link the company to the other potential buyers.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Social conflicts can occur during the distribution of water The water in keeper/maintainer can be introduced by CDCs for the distribution of water.
Electricity cannot be produced by applying this technology. The slope and latitude of the location where the flange pump is installed is too small.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
It is difficult to apply the technology without any external and
financial support.
Locally available materials should be used to reduce costs.
High level of technical knowledge is required for the establishment of the technology. The technical knowledge should be transferred to the extension workers or local people to provide technical support in the future.
This technology needs regular maintenance and the reservoir
has to be properly cleaned after heavy rainfalls.
The CDC should monitor maintenance activities by the caretaker as well as manage funds for maintenance costs.

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