Technologies

Grevillea Robusta (Silk Oak) Boundary Lines on a Pineapple Cropland [Uganda]

Yen ipoto

technologies_2778 - Uganda

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

George Kilama

Pader District

Pader District, Laguti Sub county, Paibwor parish, Ojota Village.

Uganda

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Uganda Landcare Network (ULN) - Uganda

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

09/05/2017

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Ja

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

Geen

Comments:

The fast-growing Grevillea robusta (silk oak) provides several on-site advantages including acting as windbreak and increasing soil organic matter.

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Leguminous, fast growing grevillea robusta (silk oak) planted as boundary lines provides shade to a pineapple cropland, increases soil organic matter, provides fuel wood for domestic use and timber for construction after 5-8 years.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Grevillea Robusta (silk oak) is a leguminous, fast growing and evergreen tree planted in a natural environment with tropical savanna climate of Northern Uganda which receives rainfall of about 750-1000 mm per annum, established on a generally flat slope with an altitude of about 1000 meters above sea level. The soil type is moderately fertile with low moisture content that favours tree growth. These trees are planted as boundary lines for providing shade on a pineapple cropland, nitrogen fixation, increasing soil organic matter, providing fuel wood and as a source of timber for construction after 5-8 years. The tree species generally grows well under the mono-modal (one rainfall season) rainfall pattern of Northern Uganda.

Planting is normally done during the wet season at the onset of rain in early April and the inputs required for establishing this technology include Grevillea Robusta seedlings majorly provided by the District forestry officers, farmyard manure, hand hoes and spades. A hand hoe is used to dig pits about 0.5 m deep, 0.6 m wide and 3 to 5 m apart and 1 meter away from the pineapple crop. Farmyard manure is added to the pit to fill a depth of about 0.3 m, a layer of top soil is added to 0.2 m depth and the seedling is planted on top. The rest of the pit is filled with soil and watered to improve soil moisture content. Bamboo canes can be woven around the seedlings to protect them from destruction by livestock. Grevillea Robusta grows fast when the boundary line is well established within two years. The pruned branches provide fuel wood for domestic use like cooking and within 5 to 8 years the trees are harvested for timber. Establishment costs for this technology are normally higher compared to maintenance costs especially for the purchase of Grevillea seedlings, manures, farm equipment like hand hoes and pangas. The technology is easily and spontaneously adopted by average smallholder farmers with less than 2 acres and is useful for providing shade to the pineapple crop thus increasing the yield. What is not liked about this technology is that it forms a big canopy that limits photosynthesis. To maintain this technology, the land user has to constantly prune whenever the canopy grows big.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Grevillea trees along the pineapple field that are flourishing well.

Date:

9/52017

Location:

Pader District

Name of videographer:

Betty Adoch

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Uganda

Region/ State/ Province:

Northern Uganda.

Further specification of location:

Pader Town Council

Comments:

The map shows the land user's Grevillea Robuster garden which is used as wind break and provides shade to the pineapple garden.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

2012

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

  • Agroforestry
Main products/ services:

Grevillea trees act as windbreak, provide shade and increase soil organic matter for pineapple crops.

Comments:

Fast growing woody leguminous trees provide shade, shelter from winds, soil fertility maintenance and timber production after 5-8 years.

If land use has changed due to the implementation of the Technology, indicate land use before implementation of the Technology:

The land was used for growing vegetables.

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Comments:

The grevillea trees rely on rain for growth.

Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

The grevillea tree is a perennial crop

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • windbreak/ shelterbelt
  • integrated soil fertility management

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

The trees are planted along the side of the pineapple cropland

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A5: Seed management, improved varieties
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
  • Ed: deflation and deposition
Comments:

The trees act as wind breaks and also protect the soil against wind erosion.

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
Comments:

Grevillea trees prevent land degradation by soil erosion caused by wind and surface water runoff.

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Author:

Betty Adoch.

Date:

9/5/2017

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

A hole is dug at a depth of 0.5 m, and 0.6 m wide. Farm yard manure added into the hole at a depth of 0.3 m and soil added to 0.2 m depth to fill up the hole in which tree seedlings are planted at a spacing of 3 or 5 meters apart since they do not form a huge canopy and 1 meter away from the pineapple crop.

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

7 acres

other/ national currency (specify):

UGX

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3,000 shs

4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Land clearing Management Late March
2. Procurement of seedlings Management March
3. Planting Management Early April at onset of rainfall
4. Weeding Management May during wet season
5. Pruning Management November in wet season
6. Harvesting Management December during dry season for timber

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Hired labour Day 30.0 3000.0 90000.0 100.0
Equipment Hoe pieces 10.0 12000.0 120000.0 100.0
Equipment Panga pieces 5.0 10000.0 50000.0 100.0
Plant material Grevillea seedlings pieces 500.0 100.0 50000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Manure Kgs 20.0 5000.0 100000.0 100.0
Construction material Bamboo reeds pieces 100.0 1000.0 100000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 510000.0

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Pruning Management November
2. Weeding Management May

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour hired labour days 5.0 3000.0 15000.0 100.0
Equipment hoes pieces 10.0 12000.0 120000.0 100.0
Equipment pangas pieces 5.0 10000.0 50000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 185000.0
Comments:

A good technology that is affordable for any land user to implement because of its on-site benefits like improving soil organic matter and harvesting fuel wood for cooking.

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The Grevillea seedlings were distributed at a cost from the District. There is also high cost of hiring labour. However, family members can also help in maintaining the technology.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

1000.00

Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Moderate rain from April to October which supports the growth of the trees.

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

kitgum weather station

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

Tropical savanna climate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

The land is generally flat that supports the growth of the grevillea trees.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?

Geen

Is flooding of the area occurring?

Geen

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

A subsistence farmer

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

wood production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

land management

hindered
simplified
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

energy generation

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

soil cover

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

soil loss

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

high

Quantity after SLM:

low

Comments/ specify:

the trees protect the soil from erosion

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

plant diversity

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

beneficial species

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

low

Quantity after SLM:

high

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

high

Quantity after SLM:

low

Comments/ specify:

trees protect the pineapple garden from strong wind

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

Low

Quantity after SLM:

High

Comments/ specify:

Grevillea trees act as windbreak on a pineapple field

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

high

Quantity after SLM:

low

Comments regarding impact assessment:

The technology promotes biodiversity.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase moderately
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season increase moderately
annual rainfall decrease moderately
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season decrease moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm moderately
local thunderstorm moderately
local hailstorm moderately
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought moderately
forest fire moderately

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 90-100%
Comments:

spontaneous adoption by other land users

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

Ja

If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted:
  • climatic change/ extremes
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

The grevillea robusta trees increase soil water retention after heavy rainfall episodes, and organic matter.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Grevillea trees when mature provide timber for construction.
Grevillea tree branches when pruned supply fuel wood.
The dry tree leaves decompose and provide manure for the garden.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Grevillea robusta provides many soil conservation benefits like nitrogen fixing and soil moisture retention among them.
Young shoots from grevillea robusta provide animal fodder.
The trees helps modify the microclimate.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Trees take up some of the cropland that should have been used to grow other crops. Agroforestry
Labour intensive in terms of pruning trees. Family members to provide labour
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Grevillea provides shade to pineapple crops that obstructs the photosynthesis process. Plant grevillea at a distance from the plant

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

1

  • interviews with land users

1

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

1

7.3 Links to relevant information which is available online

URL:

https://www.gardenia.net/plant/Grevillea-robusta-Silky-Oak

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