Technologies

Conventional (contour-line and ploughing) tillage [Hungary]

Hagyományos (szintvonalas és szántásos) müvelés (Hungarian)

technologies_1081 - Hungary

Completeness: 67%

1. معلومات عامة

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Csepinszky Béla

Geographical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Hungary

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Soil and water protection (EU-SOWAP)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Geographical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA CSFK) - Hungary

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

نعم

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Conventional (contour-line and ploughing) tillage

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The basis of the technology is the annual autumn ploughing. The ploughing and all other cultivation is carried out parallel to the contour lines. This way the erosion can be significantly decreased. The rotational cultivation aims at the reduction of the areal and fluvial erosion, at the repulsion of the weeds and at the attainment of the ideal state of the seedbed at the time of sowing. It is applicable anywhere bellow a certain slope angle. The only restriction is the excessively thin parcel structure.
Special education and investment are not required, it can be realised by the available instruments.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

بلد:

Hungary

Region/ State/ Province:

Zala county

Further specification of location:

Zala county, Zala hills, Zala

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

0,1963

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.1963 km2.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - wheat (winter)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 185; Longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Oct

Is crop rotation practiced?

نعم

If yes, specify:

Relay cropping: wheat, maize

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Fine loess soil with significant soil degradation, soil compaction due to inconvenient land use

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): EU and government rules, problems of the subsidy system, sales and marketing concerns

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: maize, winter wheat, maize…

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation)
  • minimal soil disturbance

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A3: Soil surface treatment
Comments:

Type of agronomic measures: relay cropping, mineral (inorganic) fertilizers, soil conditioners (lime, gypsum), rotations / fallows, contour tillage

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wm: mass movements/ landslides
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
Comments:

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wm: mass movements / landslides, Pc: compaction

Main causes of degradation: reorganization of the ownerships, land subdivision

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard

Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, increase of infiltration

Relay cropping
Material/ species: wheat, maize
Quantity/ density: 5-6t/ha, 9

Rotations / fallows
Material/ species: wheat, maize

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Hungarian Forint

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

195,8

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

25.50

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. ploughing autumn / annualy

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Comments:

Machinery/ tools: plough, disc, roller, drill, tractor, sprayer, harvester

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

compacted soil surface> chiselling (loosening); steep slops>more fuel; nutrient supply>expensive inorganic fertilizers

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

650,00

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: ~ 200 m

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is good

Soil water storage capacity is medium and sometimes high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • commercial/ market
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2

Annual population growth: negative

Off-farm income specification: no off-farm income

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Comments:

Also 100-500 ha and 500-1,000 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil loss

increased
decreased
Other ecological impacts

soil fertility

decreased
increased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

1 household

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: survey results

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
production increase
no investment necessary
decreased soil erosion
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
decreased soil erosion
production increase
no investment necessary

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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