Comprehensive Development & Management of a Small Watershed [China]

Intergraded development of a small watershed

technologies_971 - China

Completeness: 63%

1. معلومات عامة

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

The comprehensive measures including interplanting & intercropping are applied in the small watershed to control soil and water loss and improve integrated production.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Based on the national conditions and soil and water loss in the area, the corresponding SWC measures were adopted to pursue the targets including: 1. Closing the hilly and mountain area of 224ha for the timber forest and grass growing as well as preventing soil and water loss; 2. Adjusting the land use structure so as to strengthen the comprehensive development of the hilly land as well as crop land irrigation; 3. Changing the area of W & S loss to economic vegetation land; 4. Constructing reservoirs and roads.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Fujian Province

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):


If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 5.93 km2.

Xinxili small watershed is located in southern Zhenghe county. It belongs to administration of Jiefang village of Xiongshan town including three villages. The area of the watershed is about 606 ha. The weather in the region is sub-tropical monsoon climate with artificial vegetation. The soil type is red soil.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Based on the long term experiences of the mass's practice in SWC, the SWC specialists innovated through guidance, design and implementation of local water & soil conservation.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • protect a watershed/ downstream areas – in combination with other Technologies

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-silvopastoralism



  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
  • rice
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • grapes
  • tea
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 365Longest growing period from month to month: Jan - Dec

Is intercropping practiced?


Grazing land

Grazing land

Animal type:
  • poultry
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Abies species (fir)
  • Bamboo bamboo
  • Pinus species
Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Nature conservation/ protection

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The layout of vegetation is not rational. The traffic is not convenient.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Lack of new species and SWC technique. Hopefully more funds could be supported from government.

Grazingland comments: Reclaiming fish pools area of 5.6 ha, stall breeding chicken, duck etc.

Problems / comments regarding forest use: Planting young bamboo in the sparse woodland (about 135 ha) in the western watershed and planting lotus after deforesting the woodland (36.7 ha) in the southwestern watershed as well as changing the adult tea gardens to afforest in the northeast watershed.

Forest products and services: timber, grazing / browsing, nature conservation / protection

Type of grazing system comments: Reclaiming fish pools area of 5.6 ha, stall breeding chicken, duck etc.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Water supply also mixed rainfed-irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • surface water management (spring, river, lakes, sea)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S7: Water harvesting/ supply/ irrigation equipment
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type

Type of agronomic measures: mixed cropping / intercropping, mulching, minimum tillage, contour tillage

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Et: loss of topsoil, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (population increasing and lack of fuel), poverty / wealth (Lack of captial: Low living standard of the local people and lack of funds.)

Secondary causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (neglecting ecological benefit, overfelling forest), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (Sandy and loose red soil.)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, Improvement of soil structure

Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Remarks: Intercropping/mixed cropping

Material/ species: Straw
Quantity/ density: all crop a
Remarks: strips

Trees/ shrubs species: fir, bamboo, horsetail pine,

Fruit trees / shrubs species: pear, loquat, peach, greengage

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 25.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 20.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 20.00%

Construction material (earth): With some stone

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 35.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 25.00%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 60.00%

For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:10.00

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. closing mountain to afforest 1990
2. planting bamboo 1990
3. bamboo forest cultivated 1990
4. changing farmland to forest 1990
5. planting fruit trees 1990
6. Building sluice dams 1990
7. road constructing 1990

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 72 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. fertilizing 1990-1999 /3
2. cleaning out ruderal 1990-1999 /2
3. Preventing and curing illness and insect pests 1990-1999 /3
4. Broadening road 1995/timely
5. highway maintenance 1995/timely

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)


Size of the variable structural measures and areas of grass planting.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Because mechanic machines are not available, more labor forces are needed costing much. In addition, the expense for seeding, fertilizer, flagstone used in building dams take most of the total fees.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

soil texture: granite and fiber rock

Soil fertility: medium

Soil drainage / infiltration: good

Soil water storage capacity: high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%

and own 2% of the land.
and own 2% of the land.
and own 72% of the land.
and own 10% of the land.
and own 8% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: The benefit of SWC implementation is about 1.03 million US dollars. Among them, 257,289 US Dollars from the agricultural production, 145,301 USD from the forest industry and 286,746 USD from others.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:



soil loss

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

510 households

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

80% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

410 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: estimates

20% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

100 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Even without fund support, rich land users could gain added income from the implementation of SWC technique.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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