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Reporting Entity: Philippines

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: No

Completeness: 91%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:




Reporting Entity:


Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:



Prevailing land use in the specified location

  • Cropland
  • Grazing land
  • Human settlement

Contribution to Desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) measures

  • Prevention
  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation

Contribution to the strategic objectives

  • To improve the living conditions of affected populations
  • To improve the conditions of affected ecosystems

Linkages with the other best practice themes

  • Capacity-building and awareness-raising
  • Knowledge management and decision support
  • Participation, collaboration and networking


Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

“Small Farm Reservoir (SFR)” as a best practice promotes diversified farming technology. Among the major components of this project are management of watershed area and service area, development of reservoir area, trainings and seminars and dispersal of ducks, vegetable seeds and fingerlings (tilapia and hito).  In an SFR, a farmer could culture fish in the reservoir, plant/produce vegetables using stored water for watering, raise poultry/ducks and livestock and use water to irrigate the farm lands. By doing so, aside from rice farming, farmers could also earn additional income by selling some of their produce. It is also a form of savings for the family because aside from having a free, fresh, healthy and nutritious food, it also lessens likelihood of sickness. In addition, rain water collected add-up to a cooler environment in the surrounding area. |


Municipality of Bingawan, Province of Iloilo, Philippines|

If the location has well defined boundaries, specify its extension in hectares:


Estimated population living in the location:


Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

Type III Climate. There is a short dry season during months of February to April and rainy season starting May until January
Topography is of hilly terrain
The soil type is classified as alimodian clay and bontog clay loam. The surface soil is brown, pale brown or light brown, reddish brown or yellowish brown, fin coarsely to granular, clay loam to loam.  Elements available are phosphorous and exchangeable potassium. |

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

Being an agricultural community, the main source of income of the majority of the residents is farming.  Others also engage in animal/poultry raising while some work as farm laborers in order to augment their income
There were 65% owner cultivator and the rest were Certificate of Land Title Holders and lease.
No Report Submitted

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

Small Farm Reservoir (SFR) promotes diversified farming and encourages maximum utilization of resources.  The area can be used for various purposes to include culture of fish, vegetable production, and raising of poultry and livestock. It is also a measure for adaptation to climate change.|

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

1. Insufficient supply of water to irrigate farm lands.|2. Low income of farmers due to low production |3. Dependency of farmers on rice production as their source of livelihood|4. Adaptation to climate change

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

Small Farm Reservoirs (SFRs) can contribute in preventing soil erosion in sloping and rolling areas. As they collect and store rainwater and runoff, it could reduce the volume and eroding power of runoff within a sub-basin. They also capture eroded materials and thus contribute in minimizing siltation of low-lying areas and waterways.|

Specify the objectives of the best practice

1. To transform and develop a small Municipality like Bingawan, Iloilo into a self-reliant, self-sufficient and productive community by year 2010.|2. To reconstruct and rehabilitate 100 units Small Farm Reservoir (SFR) in the Municipality of Bingawan, Iloilo, gaining economic benefits for production and resource conservation.|3. To maximize the utilization of water in the SFR using modern farming systems and techniques as medium in providing technological transfer and information dissemination. |4. To develop a workable linkages among partner agencies, institutions, farmers and private sector as to link services and resources for community development potentials.

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

1. Close coordination with other lead support agencies’ extension workers to effect concerted efforts in project implementation.
1. Develop organizational and management capabilities among farmers through conduct of consultation focus group discussion, workshop, seminars, meetings and classes to farmer and their organization.|
1. Conduct of field visit and survey by the LGU on the best possible SFR sites.|2. Rehabilitation and construction of SFR.|3. Inclusion of the project in the Development Plan of the LGU
1. Dispersal of ducks, vegetable seeds, fingerlings (tilapia and hito), certified palay seeds|

Short description and technical specifications of the technology

Background: Being an agricultural community, adequate supply of irrigation water is very vital for the lives of Bingawanons.  However, way back in 1990s, due to its location irrigation support facility in the Municipality was very limited.  Only the two (2) creeks, a Small Water Impounding Project (SWIP) constructed by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management in Poblacion and the Community Irrigation Project (CIP) in Brgy. Ngingi-an served as sources of irrigation water for the farmers.  This situation led to the construction of Small farm Reservoirs in different areas of Bingawan.
Small Farm Reservoir is small earth dam structure designed for storage of rainwater and runoff to serve a single rain-fed farm.  It is applicable in numerous farm sites with rolling and undulating lands. Size of a Small Farm Reservoir ranges from an area 400 sq.m. to 2,000 sq.m. and has an embankment of 4 meters above ground level.  Construction could either be done using heavy equipment like pay loader, bulldozer, backhoe or manual using spade, hoe and other construction materials.  Irrigation is done using pvc siphon or pumps.
Small Farm Reservoir (SFR) is suited in areas with rolling and undulating lands. It consists of watershed or drainage area on the upstream part; a reservoir area to which runoff from the watershed and direct rainfall are collected; earth embankment with a height of about 4 meters or less and on-farm service area usually being planted to rice and vegetables.

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Name and address of the institution developing the technology

Local Government Units of Bingawan, Iloilo|Bingawan, Iloilo
Region VI
Philippines|Bureau of Soils and Water Management|SRDC Building, Elliptical Road cor. Visayas Avenue
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Was the technology developed in partnership?


List the partners:

Bureau of Soil and Water Management (BSWM)|Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit No. 6|Local Government Unit of Bingawan (Iloilo)|Farmer beneficiaries

Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

  • Local initiative
  • National initiative – government-led
  • Programme/project-based initiative

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?


List local stakeholders involved:

1. Bingawan Farmers’ Federation|2. Bingawan Agricultural and Fishery Council

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

The federation & council organized the farmers and identified farmer-beneficiaries and farm sites for the possible rehabilitation and construction of SFR. Agricultural technologies and inputs are introduced to these farmers through the organization and maintenance of SFR which are being done by the recipients.

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?


By means of what?
  • Participatory approaches


Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

Additional income of farmers from production of fish, vegetables, poultry, livestock.|
Promotes a cooler environment, a big contribution to address impacts of climate change.|
Minimizes surface run-off and promotes bio-diversity
Savings for the family (free source of healthy and nutritious food and lesser tendency of sickness).
Source of irrigation water that saves crops during unexpected drought periods.
Diversified farming and maximum utilization of resources.

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

Provides fresher and cheaper supply of vegetables in the market.
Job generation in other areas thru increased volume of agricultural produce that will be handled (transporting and marketing).

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

SFR promotes diversified farming and inland fish culture thereby allowing growth and encouraging cultivation and production of different variety of plants/crops and animals and fish species.
Protection and preservation of forest is very vital for the establishment of an SFR to ensure sustainable water availability in the reservoir. The forest that covers the watershed then serves a greenhouse gases (GHG) sink.  Also, the presence of SFR adds-up to a cooler environment in the surrounding area.  
Scarcity of water supply is one of the major effects of climate change. With the presence of SFR, farmers were able to store water to irrigate their farmlands even at times of drought or prolong dry season.|

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?



The Small Farm Reservoir has more benefits among its beneficiaries. With the total cost of P10,000.00 for the rehabilitation per unit, the estimated income of every famer in every SFR is P150,000.00 per year. Added to that, are non-quantifiable benefits in terms of its environmental services (e.g. rainwater harvesting and recharging shallow aquifers).

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?



Oton, Iloilo|San Enrique, Iloilo|Bohol, Province|Other areas of the country with undulating to rolling topography

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Strong support of the Local Government Units (LGUs)
Support from other national government agencies (NGAs)
Open-mindedness and willingness to adopt technology transfer by the farmers


In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?


At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national
  • National
  • Subregional
  • Regional
  • International

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

1. Good coordination and partnership with relevant government agencies was a key to the success of the initiative

Related to financial aspects

1. Potential of the SFR to support diversified farming should be maximized|2. Strong financial support not only from LGU but other agencies concerned.

Related to technical aspects

1. SFR should be strategically located in sloping and undulating areas with more trees above for water catchment|2. SFR should be properly designed with respect to the social and physical characteristics of the project sites.

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