Approaches

Advisory system for planting Eucalyptus camaldulensis on rice bunds in the salt affected areas. [Thailand]

approaches_4103 - Thailand

Completeness: 100%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Approach

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Chearnchai Sayan

Ban Muang Pia, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Ban Pai District, Khon Kean Province

Thailand

land user:

Pannut Pensri

Ban Muang Pia, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Ban Pai District, Khon Kean Province

Thailand

land user:

Kraisuea Perm

Ban Muang Pia, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Ban Pai District, Khon Kean Province

Thailand

land user:

Mulae Sommart

Ban Muang Pia, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Ban Pai District, Khon Kean Province

Thailand

land user:

Leelarat Wasana

0942988728

Ban Kham Rian, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Khon Kean province

Thailand

land user:

Chuenjai Sompong

Ban Kham Rian, Muang Pia Sub-disdrict, Khon Kean province

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Srihaban Pranee

pranee.782@gmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Sritumboon Dr. Supranee

ssritumboon@yahoo.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Pothinam Pornpana

laosuwan18@hotmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Rophandung Weera

weerop@hotmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Jakkarach Usa

usa_kl@hotmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Janplang Chettaruj

joeshua9@hotmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Thamphinon Krainukun

089 944 9829

krainukt@scg.com

Phoenix Pulp and Paper Plc Ltd.

Kutnamsai Sub-district, Nam Phong District, Khon Kaen Province

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Tharachom Thawatchai

081 917 2140

thawatct@scg.com

Phoenix Pulp and Paper Plc Ltd.

Kutnamsai Sub-district, Nam Phong District, Khon Kaen Province

Thailand

National consultant:

Arunin Dr. Somsri

ssarunin@gmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Land Development Department LDD (Land Development Department LDD) - Thailand

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

26/09/2018

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Reference(s) to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Technologies

2. Description of the SLM Approach

2.1 Short description of the Approach

Thai government promotes planting Eucalyptus camaldulensis on rice bunds to lower shallow saline groundwater level and prevent the spread of salt in soils under cooperation of farmers, land owners, Siam Forestry Co., Ltd., Subdistrict Administration, Organization, Land Development Department, and with specialists or technical advisors in various fields.

2.2 Detailed description of the Approach

Detailed description of the Approach:

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives through Land Development Department (LDD.) has initiated the project on planting salt tolerant perennial trees on salt affected land in the Northeast Thailand since 1996. This project therefore has facilitated planting Eucalyptus camaldulensis on rice bunds since then. The main objective of the approach is to encourage and support the land users to plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis on rice bunds in the salt affected land with shallow saline groundwater. The target of planting is 1000 rai/year (1 ha = 6.25 rai).
The activities started by LDD with public hearing through local administration, identifying salt affected areas by SLM specialist and landscape soil salinity map; set demonstration plot by SLM specialist and farmer on the farmer’s land as learning center and communication with local administration to call for farmers meeting with detailed work plan and discussion of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of planting Eucalyptus. The methods used were questionnaires and interviewing are for their willingness of their participation of the the stakeholders concerned by LDD SLM specialists, researchers, and experts. The LDD has provided funding for land preparation and planting cost while corporate such as Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. purchase the logs through contract, Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives provides loan to land users.

The implementing of the Approach consist of 3 phases. The preparation phase which is of seedling preparation (growing the seedling in nursery), site selection for establishment of demonstration plot of salt affected soil, rice bund preparation, and establish demonstration plot of 200 rai at Ban Kham Riang, Muang Pia Sub-district, Ban Phai District, Khon Kaen Province. The coordination phase includes joint meeting between farmers and researchers, joint monitoring, evaluation and follow up, land users, site visit to demonstration plot. The planting actions start with model (planting method) establishment on farmers land in the salt affected area who were convinced by the results of the demonstration plots, Those farmers will be supported by the project on Planting Salt Tolerant Perennial Trees on Saline Soils in the Northeast Thailand.

The market starts up for purchase of logs after joint monitoring evaluation and follow up. The results from the interviews show that land users favor this project and spread Eucalyptus planting by themselves due to the decrease in salination as well as higher income from better rice production and additional income from selling tree trunks. However, there were some negatives effects by the falling leaves (farmers believe that they produce organic compound that are detrimental to rice yield) and shading to rice crop of Eucalyptus discussed among farmers. This problem, was solved by arranging site visits, where there were no effects found. Furthermore, favorable micro-climate is cooler, local earth worms used to disappear now returning resulted in better soil properties. However, more birds, rats dwell in this better environment become disadvantage because they damage rice yield. However, there are more advantage than disadvantage so they still adopt this technology. It has been found that more than 10,000 rai (1,600 ha) of shallow saline groundwater of the salt affected land were planted Eucalyptus trees on rice bunds in the low lying salt affected discharged area of shallow saline groundwater ( planting Eucalyptus more than 1,000 rai per year).

2.3 Photos of the Approach

2.4 Videos of the Approach

Comments, short description:

SLM discussion and explanation

Date:

26/09/2018

Location:

Ban Muang Pia

Name of videographer:

Dr. Supranee Sritumboon

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Approach has been applied

Country:

Thailand

Region/ State/ Province:

Khon Kaen

Further specification of location:

Ban Phai

2.6 Dates of initiation and termination of the Approach

Indicate year of initiation:

2009

Comments:

This approach has been used since 1996 until now (the LDD project started in 1996 but the land user interviewed started planting Eucalyptus in 2009).

2.7 Type of Approach

  • project/ programme based

2.8 Main aims/ objectives of the Approach

The main objectives of the approach is to encourage and support land users to plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the salt affected land, planting target of the project is 1000 rai/year (1 ha = 6.25 rai).

2.9 Conditions enabling or hindering implementation of the Technology/ Technologies applied under the Approach

social/ cultural/ religious norms and values
  • enabling

the land users follow what their neighbors practice.

availability/ access to financial resources and services
  • enabling

farmers outside the project may get loan from Bank for Agriculture and Cooperatives.

institutional setting
  • enabling

local administration

collaboration/ coordination of actors
  • enabling

coordinators of soil volunteers and community leaders in the area.

legal framework (land tenure, land and water use rights)
  • enabling
policies
  • enabling

the government has the policy to prevent soil degradation.

land governance (decision-making, implementation and enforcement)
  • enabling
knowledge about SLM, access to technical support
  • enabling

to provide knowledge for land users in the area.

markets (to purchase inputs, sell products) and prices
  • enabling

through corporate contract

workload, availability of manpower
  • enabling

for land users under the project

3. Participation and roles of stakeholders involved

3.1 Stakeholders involved in the Approach and their roles

  • local land users/ local communities

farmers under the project

planting Eucalyptus

  • community-based organizations

local government (Sub-district Administration Organization)

call for meeting

  • SLM specialists/ agricultural advisers

Land Development Department

site selection

  • researchers

Land Development Department

provide technical recommendation

  • private sector

Siam Forestry Co., Ltd.

purchase logs

  • national government (planners, decision-makers)

Land Development Department

funding, planner, decision-makers

If several stakeholders were involved, indicate lead agency:

Land Development Department

3.2 Involvement of local land users/ local communities in the different phases of the Approach
Involvement of local land users/ local communities Specify who was involved and describe activities
initiation/ motivation interactive land users in the project based
planning passive Discussion with land users on work plan before starting the activity.
implementation interactive land users/farmers in the project
monitoring/ evaluation passive land users in the project

3.3 Flow chart (if available)

Description:

Process of participating Technology development of 3 phases include preparation, coordination and planting action phases.

Author:

Stakeholders concerned

3.4 Decision-making on the selection of SLM Technology/ Technologies

Specify who decided on the selection of the Technology/ Technologies to be implemented:
  • mainly SLM specialists, following consultation with land users
Explain:

SLM specialists locate salt affected areas where shallow saline groundwater area are found.
Then consult with land users to agree with the set technology and the shared benefit between LDD in combating salinity problem as well as their additional income with better soils and favorable micro-climate.

Specify on what basis decisions were made:
  • evaluation of well-documented SLM knowledge (evidence-based decision-making)

4. Technical support, capacity building, and knowledge management

4.1 Capacity building/ training

Was training provided to land users/ other stakeholders?

Yes

Specify who was trained:
  • land users
Form of training:
  • demonstration areas
  • public meetings
Subjects covered:

Reclamation and prevention for salt affected land with accessed technology and increase income for farmers.

4.2 Advisory service

Do land users have access to an advisory service?

Yes

Specify whether advisory service is provided:
  • on land users' fields
Describe/ comments:

1. Community volunteer on soil represents from Land Development Department provides knowledge by training farmers in the area.
2. SLM specialists from Land Development Department and specialists of Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. visited and advised farmers in the area.

4.3 Institution strengthening (organizational development)

Have institutions been established or strengthened through the Approach?
  • no

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation

Is monitoring and evaluation part of the Approach?

Yes

Comments:

SLM specialists from Land Development Department collaborated with Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. and community volunteer on soil survey the survival rate and follow up growth of plant in the area.

If yes, is this documentation intended to be used for monitoring and evaluation?

Yes

Comments:

There are various point in this document that are interesting and should be adapted for each area to use for evaluation.

4.5 Research

Was research part of the Approach?

Yes

Specify topics:
  • technology
Give further details and indicate who did the research:

The soil salinity research group, LDD conducted research on saline groundwater flow path along the landscape in Northeast Thailand with Prof.Dr. Adrian Peck from University of Western Australia supported by Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and another project with Dr. Nico Marcar from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) on screening for salt tolerant trees sponsored ACIAR as well.

5. Financing and external material support

5.1 Annual budget for the SLM component of the Approach

If precise annual budget is not known, indicate range:
  • 2,000-10,000
Comments (e.g. main sources of funding/ major donors):

Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MOAC), Thailand

5.2 Financial/ material support provided to land users

Did land users receive financial/ material support for implementing the Technology/ Technologies?

Yes

If yes, specify type(s) of support, conditions, and provider(s):

Assistant in kind, labour cost and seedling supply.

5.3 Subsidies for specific inputs (including labour)

  • labour
To which extent Specify subsidies
fully financed Rice bund widening as establishment labour cost subsidized by LDD while planting and maintenance costs born by land user.
  • agricultural
Specify which inputs were subsidised To which extent Specify subsidies
seedling fully financed free seedling
If labour by land users was a substantial input, was it:
  • voluntary
Comments:

Voluntary labour from land user for planting and maintenance has been calculated as labour cost even though LDD did not pay for the labour.

5.4 Credit

Was credit provided under the Approach for SLM activities?

No

5.5 Other incentives or instruments

Were other incentives or instruments used to promote implementation of SLM Technologies?

Yes

If yes, specify:

1. The policy of Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. to expand the planting area as a source of raw materials for industry and organize a market in the area.
2. This technology encourages farmers to easily access their capital sources such as Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives, LDD will send work plan and names of the land users to the bank.

6. Impact analysis and concluding statements

6.1 Impacts of the Approach

Did the Approach empower local land users, improve stakeholder participation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Strengthening relationship local government administration and land users.

Did the Approach enable evidence-based decision-making?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Establish learning center for farmers as an information for technology adoption.

Did the Approach help land users to implement and maintain SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers well adopted the technology resulting in expansion of the areas for technology.

Did the Approach mobilize/ improve access to financial resources for SLM implementation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Land users access to the bank loan supported by LDD project work plan as well as the names of the land users presented to the bank.

Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of land users to implement SLM?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers have adapted and changed SLM model to suit their own preference.

Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of other stakeholders?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

There are many other technologies that reduce salinity carried out by LDD.

Did the Approach lead to improved food security/ improved nutrition?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Increase rice yield due to decreasing of saline soil and get a higher income.

Did the Approach improve access to markets?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. establishes market in the area for the purchase of the product.

6.2 Main motivation of land users to implement SLM

  • increased production

Increase variety of product in the area (rice, eucalyptus, livestock).

  • reduced land degradation

Decrease salination in soil.

6.3 Sustainability of Approach activities

Can the land users sustain what has been implemented through the Approach (without external support)?
  • yes
If yes, describe how:

Farmers have a better understanding and positive attitude of planting Eucalyptus. Moreover, they have income from Eucalyptus logs at a definite market for Eucalyptus.

6.4 Strengths/ advantages of the Approach

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Community volunteer on soil and community leader are the coordinator in the area.
Farmers access to markets and sources of Eucalyptus seedlings easily.
LDD officers have continually surveyed and followed up in the area.
Distribute seedling for free of charge.
Good marketing for the purchase and sale in the area.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
A supported technique created to develop technology to suit landscape in the Northeast area.
Planting Eucalyptus knowledge was provided incessantly by Land Development Department and Siam Forestry Co., Ltd.
Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. develop marketing covering the Northeast region.
A demonstrated plot established in the area.

6.5 Weaknesses/ disadvantages of the Approach and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The LDD officers do not visit whenever the land user need help. The officers need to contact the land user and give advice more often.
More birds and rats attack rice yield. Set up crow scare, some farmers eat birds and rats.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Farmers planted closer spacing of 1 meter for demanding of more wood product, regardless of the adverse effect on rice. Clearly illustrate the adverse effect of closer spacing of plants.
Income from logs is considered too low. Changing crops such as olives, figs, dates, pomegranate, etc.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • interviews with land users

7 participating farmers

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

2 officers from Land Development Department

  • Stakeholders, local government, and private company

2 officers from Siam Forestry Co., Ltd. and 1 officer from Sub-district Administration Organization

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Land Development Department

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.ldd.go.th/

7.3 Links to relevant information which is available online

Title/ description:

Planting Eucalyptus on rice bunds: Better way for the Northeast farmers

URL:

http://www.ldd.go.th/

Title/ description:

Eucalyptus : New opportunity by Siam Forestry

URL:

http://www.scgpackaging.com/others/forestry/eucalyptus/TH

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