Approaches

Vegetative approach by using halophyte (Dixie grass) to control severely salt-affected land. [Thailand]

approaches_4210 - Thailand

Completeness: 100%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Approach

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Yooburi Somsak

+66-80-7240599

10 Moo 12, Ban Kut Chok, Kut Chok Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province 30120

Thailand

land user:

Sriwootpong Rungariam

+66-93-4613289

107 Ban Donpae Moo 8, Kut Chok Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province

Thailand

Department of Agricultural Extension officer:

Auonpokang Chiwat

+66-85-7783258

Buayai District Agricultural Extension Office

49 Buayai Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province 30120

Thailand

land user:

Kumtisong Noorian

+66-62-1524591

45 Moo 10, Dang-chang Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province 30120

Thailand

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
National consultant:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Land Development Department LDD (Land Development Department LDD) - Thailand

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

18/10/2018

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Reference(s) to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Technologies

2. Description of the SLM Approach

2.1 Short description of the Approach

The government promotes halophytes (Dixie grass) to control severely salt-affected land, rehabilitate the ecosystem and prevent the spread of salt in soil under cooperation of land owners, livestock farmers, local administration, local government agency, Land Development Department researchers and with specialists/ technical advisors in various fields.

2.2 Detailed description of the Approach

Detailed description of the Approach:

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives by Land Development Department (LDD) had initiated the project on planting salt-tolerant tree and grass on severely salt-affected land in the Northeast of Thailand since 1996. The project had facilitated planting halophyte (Dixie grass) on salt-crusted and barren land since then. The main objectives of approach were to promote the land users to maximize land use for farming, prevent the forming of extensive severely saline soil, to use halophyte (Dixie grass) as cover crop and rehabilitate the ecosystem of severely salt-affected soil. The activities started with public hearing, identifying severely salt-affected areas, set demonstration plot on the farmer’s land as learning center and communication with local administration to call for farmers meeting with detailed work plan and discussion of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of planting Dixie grass. The implementing activities consisted of 4 stages; the PREPARATION STAGE was for seedling preparation, site selection of severely salt-affected soil and land preparation, public hearing and establishment of the demonstration plot at Dan Chang Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The COORDINATION STAGE included joint meeting between farmers and researchers, joint monitoring & evaluation and follow up and land users' decision-making. The PLANTING STAGE started from selection of farmers joining the project, facilitating and training farmers, site visit to the demonstration plot, which is the model of planting method established under the project on planting salt-tolerant tree and grass on severely salt-affected land in the Northeast of Thailand. The FINAL ACTIVITY OF SCALING-OUT STAGE: the land users/ farmers favoured this project; after 3 years of planting Dixie grass it was found this barren land became covered by plants and much improved in biodiversity by the evidence of many varieties of wild grasses and flowers, dragonflies, rats and birds. Farmers could now grow rice and they used Dixie grass as feed for livestock. Moreover, and attractively, farmers were able to increase their income. The migration for job to big cities was reduced. The stakeholders were land owners, livestock farmers, local administration, local government agency, researchers and SML specialists from LDD - all worked together with mutual benefit. Although planting halophytes was an improvement method (of vegetative measure) of severely saline soil with low input, the recovery/accomplishment time (in saline soil improvement) could not be as fast as that of the engineering measure with much higher investment.

2.3 Photos of the Approach

2.4 Videos of the Approach

Date:

18/10/2018

Location:

6 Ban Donpae Moo 8, Kut Chok Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Approach has been applied

Country:

Thailand

Region/ State/ Province:

Nakhon Ratchasima Province

Further specification of location:

6 Ban Donpae Moo 8, Kut Chok Sub-district, Buayai District

2.6 Dates of initiation and termination of the Approach

Indicate year of initiation:

2015

Year of termination (if Approach is no longer applied):

2016

2.7 Type of Approach

  • project/ programme based

2.8 Main aims/ objectives of the Approach

The main objectives of the approach were to promote the land users to maximize land use for farming, to prevent the forming of extensive severely saline soil, to use halophyte (Dixie grass) as cover crop and to rehabilitate the ecosystem of severely salt-affected soil.

2.9 Conditions enabling or hindering implementation of the Technology/ Technologies applied under the Approach

social/ cultural/ religious norms and values
  • enabling

The land users follow what their neighbours practice.

availability/ access to financial resources and services
  • enabling

Through the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives.

institutional setting
  • enabling

Local administration

collaboration/ coordination of actors
  • enabling

Coordination of soil doctor volunteers and community leaders in the area.

policies
  • enabling

The government has the policy to prevent soil degradation.

knowledge about SLM, access to technical support
  • enabling

To provide knowledge to land users in the area.

workload, availability of manpower
  • enabling

For land users under the project

  • hindering

For land users outside the project

3. Participation and roles of stakeholders involved

3.1 Stakeholders involved in the Approach and their roles

  • local land users/ local communities

Farmers under the project

Planting halophytes (Sporobolus verginicus - Dixie grass)

  • community-based organizations

Local administration (Sub-district Administration Organization)

Call for meeting

  • SLM specialists/ agricultural advisers

Land Development Department

Site selection

  • researchers

Land Development Department

Provide technical recommendations

  • national government (planners, decision-makers)

Land Development Department

Funding, planner, decision-makers

3.2 Involvement of local land users/ local communities in the different phases of the Approach
Involvement of local land users/ local communities Specify who was involved and describe activities
initiation/ motivation interactive Land users in the project based
planning passive Discussion with land users on work plan before starting the activity.
implementation external support Land users/farmers in the project
monitoring/ evaluation external support Land users in the project

3.3 Flow chart (if available)

Description:

Four stages of participating process of technology development among organizations, community volunteers on soil improvement, farmers, SML specialists and researchers.

Author:

Kamontip Sasithorn

3.4 Decision-making on the selection of SLM Technology/ Technologies

Specify who decided on the selection of the Technology/ Technologies to be implemented:
  • mainly SLM specialists, following consultation with land users
Specify on what basis decisions were made:
  • evaluation of well-documented SLM knowledge (evidence-based decision-making)

4. Technical support, capacity building, and knowledge management

4.1 Capacity building/ training

Was training provided to land users/ other stakeholders?

Yes

Specify who was trained:
  • land users
Form of training:
  • demonstration areas
  • public meetings
Subjects covered:

Prevention and rehabilitation of salt-affected land with available technology and increased income for farmers.

4.2 Advisory service

Do land users have access to an advisory service?

Yes

Specify whether advisory service is provided:
  • on land users' fields
Describe/ comments:

1. Soil doctor volunteers represent the Land Development Department with duty in providing knowledge to farmers in the area.
2. SLM specialists from Land Development Department visited and advised farmers in the area.

4.3 Institution strengthening (organizational development)

Have institutions been established or strengthened through the Approach?
  • no

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation

Is monitoring and evaluation part of the Approach?

Yes

Comments:

SLM specialists from Land Development Department collaborated with LDD soil doctor volunteers in surveying the survival rate and following up the growth of plants in the area.

If yes, is this documentation intended to be used for monitoring and evaluation?

Yes

4.5 Research

Was research part of the Approach?

Yes

Specify topics:
  • technology
Give further details and indicate who did the research:

The Soil Salinity Research Group, LDD, conducted research on "halophytes plantation and the flow path along the landscape in Northeast Thailand" with Dr. J.L. Gallagher from Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware.

5. Financing and external material support

5.1 Annual budget for the SLM component of the Approach

If precise annual budget is not known, indicate range:
  • < 2,000
Comments (e.g. main sources of funding/ major donors):

Land Development Department

5.2 Financial/ material support provided to land users

Did land users receive financial/ material support for implementing the Technology/ Technologies?

Yes

If yes, specify type(s) of support, conditions, and provider(s):

Dixie grass seedlings and land preparation cost

5.3 Subsidies for specific inputs (including labour)

  • labour
To which extent Specify subsidies
fully financed Planting
  • other
Other (specify) To which extent Specify subsidies
seeding fully financed free seedings
If labour by land users was a substantial input, was it:
  • paid in cash
Comments:

Labour by land users and employees; due to the landowner has insufficient labor for grass planting. Therefore, need to hire workers to grow by paying wages a day 175 THB/person (the minimum rate)

5.4 Credit

Was credit provided under the Approach for SLM activities?

No

5.5 Other incentives or instruments

Were other incentives or instruments used to promote implementation of SLM Technologies?

No

6. Impact analysis and concluding statements

6.1 Impacts of the Approach

Did the Approach empower local land users, improve stakeholder participation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Generate food security and family income.

Did the Approach enable evidence-based decision-making?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Establish learning center for farmers as an information for technology adoption.

Did the Approach help land users to implement and maintain SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers well adopted the technology, resulting in the expansion of such Approach to a wider area.

Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of land users to implement SLM?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers have adapted and changed SLM model to suit their own preference.

Did the Approach lead to improved food security/ improved nutrition?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers can grow rice and they use Dixie grass as feed for livestock.

Did the Approach lead to employment, income opportunities?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

The migration for job to big cities has reduced.

6.2 Main motivation of land users to implement SLM

  • increased production

From the interview, farmers were satisfied with this technology of Sporobolus virginicus planting to rehabilitate severely saline soil. Besides being lower in salination farmers got more rice yields and better environment and livelihoods.

  • reduced land degradation

After 3 years of planting Dixie grass, it was found that the formerly barren land became covered by plants and much improved in biodiversity by the evidence of many varieties of wild grass, dragonflies, rats and birds.

6.3 Sustainability of Approach activities

Can the land users sustain what has been implemented through the Approach (without external support)?
  • yes
If yes, describe how:

Farmers have better understanding and positive attitude of planting halophytes (Dixie grass). Moreover, they have more income generated from rice yield and livestocks, as farmers could now grow rice and used Dixie grass to raise livestock.

6.4 Strengths/ advantages of the Approach

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Soil doctor volunteer, local government agency and community leader were the coordinators in the area.
Farmers had easy access to markets and sources of Dixie grass seedlings.
Distribution of Dixie grass seedling was done at no cost.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
A supported technique created to make better environment on severely saline soil in the Northeast of Thailand.
Technique in planting Dixie grass was provided continually by Land Development Department and community volunteers on soil improvement.
A demonstrated plot was established in the area.

6.5 Weaknesses/ disadvantages of the Approach and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Advertising of project was not extensive enough, particularly to the area of severely saline soil. It is necessary for the Land Development Department to cooperate more closely with local administration to promote the project.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Some farmers did not believe that Dixie grass was very salt tolerant and will make the salinity of the soil decrease after planting it. The officers should build up knowledge from successful farmers by frequently visiting farmers in the area under the project "rehabilitation of severely salt-affected soil by planting Dixie grass".

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • interviews with land users
  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Land Development Department

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.ldd.go.th/

7.3 Links to relevant information which is available online

Title/ description:

where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/library/media/27/

Title/ description:

where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer) URL:

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/en/projects-and-countries/projects/drr

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