Area closure [Ethiopia]

Bota Klela (Tigrigna)

technologies_1414 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 69%

1. General information

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Closure of degraded land is made on land that has lost vegetation cover, has low soil fertility . To speed up the regeneration process applying some SWC activities and enrichment plantation will be necessary.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The degraded land is closed from human and animal interfrances for at least 3-5 years. Inorder to enhance the rehabilitation rate of the degraded land SWC activities, such as terracing, enrichment plantation and oversowing of grass species is considered. These practices enhances growth of natural vegetation and enriches biodiversity.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 54.6 km2.

The bush land are closed and in some areas SWC activities were made and enrichment plantation has been done.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

From churches and other religious areas

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
  • Rhodes grass, local grasses
  • Acacia saligna, grevellia, schinesmolle
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 180Longest growing period from month to month: May - Oct

Grazing land

Grazing land

  • free grazing
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Other forest products
  • Nature conservation/ protection

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Soil erosion, deforestation, degradation, loss of biodiversity, reduction in land productivity

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Low productivity and decline of soil fertility.

Other grazingland: free grazing

Other type of forest: area rehabilitation: lack of awarness

Problems / comments regarding forest use: In the closed forests enrichment plantation is undertaken. Individual woodlots are planted at homesteads. Currently individuals considered land less, poor and women are given land from the hillsides to plant and enclose them. The purpose is to enable individuals to generate income from it.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Water supply: Also mixed rainfed - irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • area closure (stop use, support restoration)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wg: gully erosion / gullying

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (wood cutting), overgrazing (trampling, degraded cover-plant), education, access to knowledge and support services (lack of knowledge)

Secondary causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (agricultural causes), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (heavy rainfalls), poverty / wealth (lack of captial), land policy

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

Also: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, increase of surface roughness, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply, water spreading, improvement of soil structure

Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter, increase in soil fertility

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 500

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass

Trees/ shrubs species: Acacia saligna, grevellia, schinesmolle

Grass species: Rhodes grass, local grasses

Terrace: bench level
Vertical interval between structures (m): 2
Spacing between structures (m): 5-8
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5-0.75
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 300

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 30%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 0%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use practices / intensity level: area closure

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Seedling Production Januray-June
2. Pitting May
3. Planting Jully
4. Layout and survey September
5. Stone collection December-may
6. Foundation excavation and construction December-may
7. Awarness creation and site selection January
8. Area closed
9. Site guard throughout the year

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 154.0 154.0 10.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 6.5 6.5 100.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 2.0 2.0
Other Person days ha 1.0 28.0 28.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 190.5
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 23.81

Duration of establishment phase: 120 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Planting Jully /yearly
2. Weeding end of August /once
3. Stone collection July-august/annual
4. Construction July-august/annual
5. Enrichment plantation July / annual

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 15.0 15.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 15.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 1.88

length of structure, site guard/ha, number of seedlings

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

labour, slope

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1000-2500 m a.s.l.
Landforms: Also plateua/plains and hill slopes
Slopes on avereage: Also moderate and steep

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Also moderately deep, deep and very shallow
Soil texture also coarse/light and fine/heavy
Soil fertility is low-medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is medium-good
Soil water storage capacity is low-medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 200-500 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 3% - 4%

70% of the land users are average wealthy and own 70% of the land.
25% of the land users are poor and own 25% of the land.
5% of the land users are poor and own 5% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: Food for work

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


fodder production

Comments/ specify:

Cut and carry

fodder quality


wood production


production area

Comments/ specify:

Reduction of grazing land

Income and costs

farm income


Socio-cultural impacts

community institutions


SLM/ land degradation knowledge


Ecological impacts


soil moisture


soil cover


soil loss

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

animal diversity

Comments/ specify:

Wild life increase. On the other hand this also led to danger of wild life on crops and domestic animals

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

Other ecological impacts



Soil fertility


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season


downstream flooding


downstream siltation


Soil fertility


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

180000 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: estimates

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: because the benefits obtained are convincing and many land usrs want to practice it either individually, in groups or at a community level.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Rehabilitating the degraded land
Increase grass and fodder for livestock
Obtain wood for fuel
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Rehabilitation of the degraded land

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Developing bylaws to keep the area and to use benefits out of it
Increase biodiversity

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Enrichment plantation
Decrease soil erosion

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Constructing SWC techniques wherever necessary
Increasing feed and forage
Habitate for wild animals

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Lack of land use policy facilitate to develop and implement national policy
Lack of awarness creat awarness of stackholders at various level

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:


Links and modules

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