Technologies

Orchard-based Agroforestry (establishment of orchard) [Tajikistan]

technologies_1001 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 71%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
NCCR North-South (NCCR North-South) - Kyrgyzstan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Voluntary Labour Assistance
approaches

Voluntary Labour Assistance [Tajikistan]

Voluntary labour assistance for labour intensive activities whereby community members help each other in contributing labour on the basis of mutual understanding.

  • Compiler: Erik Bühlmann

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Establishment of an orchard intercropping system on severely degraded cropland.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

A fruit orchard (consisting of apples, apricots, cherries, pears and nut trees) was established on degraded cropland. Intercropping of annual crops such as wheat, flax, chick peas and vegetables as well as perennial herbaceous fodder plants (alfa-alfa and esparzet) were planted after the first year of the establishment of the orchard. Only the onion plot is rotated systematically since the farmer states that fertility declines due to heavy soil losses result from over-irrigation. Spacing of tree rows varies between 8-10m, the intercropping system is cultivated using a tractor. Fruit trees are aligned in the direction of the slope to facilitate irrigation. At the top of the field an irrigation channel (40cm wide, 15cm deep) stabilised with aligned poplar trees directs water onto the orchard system. During the rainy season the channel serves as a cut-off drain, protecting the land from water running on. Along the trees, a 2.5 m wide grass strip protects the ground from splash erosion.

Purpose of the Technology: The orchard system was established to increase farm production by integrating different resources, while simultaneously conserving soil and water resources and preventing development of gullies. Prior to tree planting, the area had been levelled with a bulldozer to restore the severely degraded cropland. The bought seedlings were planted in hand-dug pits. During summer, the orchard system is watered three days per week; manure is applied around the fruit trees on an annual basis. Pruning of the trees is done in early spring. Due to irrigation, the grass strips can be harvested twice a year for haymaking. Farming two crops at a time means gross farm production could be considerably increased, which is the reaon why the farmer considered the technology successful. However, establishment and maintenance of the technology is cost intensive and, in this case study, was only affordable due to the farmers off-farm income. Since the tree rows are aligned up and down the slope, soil erosion is solely reduced by the capability of the irrigation channel (and aligned tree barrier) to prevent the system from runon. Planting tree rows on the gradient would increase the technologies potential to reduce soil loss.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

RRS

Further specification of location:

Faizabad Rayon

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Yes

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • legumes and pulses - peas
  • fibre crops - flax, hemp, other
  • cereals - wheat (spring)
  • fodder crops - alfalfa
  • vegetables - other
  • esparzet
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • fruits, other
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 210Longest growing period from month to month: March - August

Is intercropping practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

Intercropping of annual crops such as wheat, flax, chick peas and vegetables as well as perennial herbaceous fodder plants (alfa-alfa and esparzet)

Grazing land

Grazing land

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Severe water erosion (gullies and rills) and subsequent decline in fertility on cropland and on overgrazed pastures.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: If the land is irrigated, then after the harvest of annual crops (mid-July until beginning of August), and there is immediate sowing/planting of vegetables (maize, tomatoes, cucumbers, melon among others), then the harvest of vegetables in late August and September is possible.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation
Comments:

Water supply also rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V5: Others
structural measures

structural measures

  • S11: Others
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
Comments:

Main measures: structural measures

Secondary measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures

Type of agronomic measures: mixed cropping / intercropping, manure / compost / residues, mineral (inorganic) fertilizers

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation
Comments:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Irrigated orchard system with intercropping; irrigation channel (stabilised by aligned poplar trees) also acts as a cut-off drain to prevent runon.

Location: Chinoro. Faizabad Rayon, RRS

Date: 18.07.2005

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides)

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase in soil fertility

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: wheat, chickpeas, flax, vegetables, alfa-alfa, esparzet
Remarks: between tree rows

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: manure
Quantity/ density: 20kg/tree
Remarks: spreading around fruit trees

Mineral (inorganic) fertilizers
Material/ species: silitra and/or superphosphate
Quantity/ density: 200kg/ha
Remarks: only if wheat is intercropped

Vegetative measure: aligned: slope direction
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 200
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 8
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5

Vegetative measure: aligned: slope direction
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 8
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2

Vegetative measure: aligned: along irigation channel on contour
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 50
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: poplar trees

Fruit trees / shrubs species: apple, pear, cherry, apricot, peach and nut trees

Grass species: grass cover with esparzet and alfa alfa (sown to improve grass cover)

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 17.00%

Structural measure: diversion ditch / cut-off drain
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.15
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.4
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 100

Construction material (earth): earth was moved to fill gullies and large rills

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 17%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Author:

Erik Bühlmann, Berne, Switzerland

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. land levelling and filling up of gullies winter/early spring
2. digging of irrigation channel spring
3. acquiring tree seedlings on market or at sovkhoze
4. digging of pits early spring
5. planting seedlings in pits early spring
6. sowing of esparzet and alfa alfa (grass strips) to get intact grass cover spring

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour land levelling ha 1.0 45.0 45.0 100.0
Equipment tools ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
Equipment machine for land levelling ha 1.0 150.0 150.0
Plant material seedlings ha 1.0 250.0 250.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 470.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 470.0

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. clearing of irigation channel/cut-off drain from washed in soil rainy season/weekly
2. periodical irrigation (3x a week) summer /three days/week
3. periodical irrigation (3x a week) summer /three days/week
4. application of manure early spring /annual
5. application of manure early spring /annual
6. application of pesticides spring /annual
7. application of pesticides spring /annual
8. pruning of fruit trees winter/early spring /annual
9. pruning of fruit trees winter/early spring /annual
10. cutting of grass (haymaking) summer /twice a cropping season
11. cutting of grass (haymaking) summer /twice a cropping season
12. ploughing of area between tree rows (disc plough) depending on crop / annual
13. applying of mineral fertilisers spring / annual (only for intercropped wheat)
14. weeding spring / regularly
15. applying manure around fruit trees winter/spring /annual

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour ploughing of area ha 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
Labour sowing and weeding ha 1.0 18.0 18.0
Labour pruning of fruit trees ha 1.0 30.0 30.0
Labour spraying trees with biocides ha 1.0 12.0 12.0
Plant material seeds ha 1.0 30.0 30.0 100.0
Plant material 1.0
Fertilizers and biocides fertilizer ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides biocides ha 1.0 10.0 10.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides compost/manure ha 1.0 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 210.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 210.0
Comments:

Costs were calculated for a 100x100 m field plot (with a projected 200 fruit trees/ha).

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Number of trees planted: since the establishment and maintainance require considerable financial and labour inputs; expenditures for tree seedlings bought from the market: N.B. if nursing the trees is completed by land user himself, establishment costs can be halved.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

growing period between 180-210 days

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: medium

Soil drainage / infiltration: medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • > 50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

5% of the land users are rich and own 15% of the land.
75% of the land users are average wealthy and own 70% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: In general, all farmers (including those applying SWC technologies) are highly dependent on off-farm incomes, which in most cases are earned in Russia, either by themselves or by their relatives.

Market orientation of production system subsistence (self-supply): Subsistence, only surpluses sold

Level of mechanization: Ploughing is carried out by tractor whenever possible, but also animal traction is existent.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Comments:

Households with 1-2 ha are depending on available working force, labour is limiting factor.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • leased

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

loss of land for wheat production

land management

hindered
simplified
Comments/ specify:

machines used for land cultivation cannot operate so easily

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Other socio-economic impacts

fruit yields

Comments/ specify:

due to lack of fertilisers and biocides

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

disputes on land use rights with other villagers, since orchards are in great demand

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

excess water drainage

reduced
improved
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

increased
decreased
Other ecological impacts

prevention of land from gullies and large rills

reduced
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

20 households in an area of 0.1 - 1 km2

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

20 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
increase in overall farm income
prevention of gully and large rill erosion
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
orchard system is protected from runon
effectively prevents formation of gullies and large rills
significant increases in gross farm production
effective way of rehabilitating bad lands
increases soil fertility

How can they be sustained / enhanced? consequent mulching would increase the organic matter content of the soil, and hence soil fertility

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
fruit trees vulnerable to pests, frost and strong winds
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
high establishment and maintainance costs if nursing of tree seedlings is carried out by the land user himself, establishment costs can be reduced
does not prevent soil erosion, soil losses especially where irrigated By planting tree rows on gradient (not up and down the slope)
management of orchard systems requires considerable inputs which often cannot be afforded by poor people

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

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