Technologies

DireDawaTraditional Checkdam [Ethiopia]

Chiba

technologies_1065 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 67%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Tesema Million Ajire

Ethiopia

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO (FAO) - Italy

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

It is a stone wall built across a gully at a given interval to trap moisture and sediment for crop production.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

It is an enbankment placed in the gully. It is constructed with stones. The purpose is to conserve and retain runoff coming from upslopes. It is intended to trap sediment running from slopes. It converts gully land into cultivated. The establishment starts with a given height of stone wall which is increased every year as the need comes and when sediment fills up. It is essentially water harvesting practice and is very suitable in areas where moisture stress is high. At present new design and layout elements have been included to improve durability of structures and efficiency to store more water and soils. Top soils eroded from upper catchments and sedimented by the checkdams. Maintenance is made every year to repair breaks and additional height is given for the checkdams.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Ethiopia

Region/ State/ Province:

Dire Dawa

Further specification of location:

Legedon

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2
Comments:

70% of the woreda is under this technology

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

It evolved from the local practices.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - sorghum
  • legumes and pulses - other
  • legumes and pulses - soya
  • chat, oxen plough
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • citrus
  • coffee, open grown
  • mango, mangosteen, guava
  • papaya
  • prunus
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 210 Longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Nov

Is intercropping practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

sorghum, soyabean

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
  • Stall feeding: Very common during crop growing season
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Soil erosion, stream bank erosion, gully expansion

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): increase in eroded land, shortage of cultivable land.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: (1) Sorghum-Maize-Legume, (2) Sorghum-Sorghum

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Comments:

Water supply: Also post-flooding

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • cross-slope measure
  • surface water management (spring, river, lakes, sea)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wr: riverbank erosion
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Wr: riverbank erosion

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (suseptable for erosion), education, access to knowledge and support services (lack of knowledge)

Secondary causes of degradation: overgrazing (free grazing), other human induced causes (specify) (agricultural causes - traditional farm implements), lack of enforcement of legislat./authority (less attention is given), land subdivision (smaller land holdings)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply, water spreading, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting, expansion of cultivated area

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: sorghum, soyabean

Contour planting / strip cropping
Material/ species: oxen plough

Contour ridging
Remarks: use basins to collect wate

Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 4000
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 5x5m
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 30x30m
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 30x30m

In blocks
Vegetative material: O : other
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 30x30
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 25x25
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 25x25

Fruit trees / shrubs species: mango, orange, prunus, papaya

Perennial crops species: Coffee, Chat

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 3.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 2.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.00%

Structural measure: infiltration ditch / sediment sand / trap
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1.5
Spacing between structures (m): 15-30
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.5

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 8%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 3%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 0%

For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:1

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: grazing lands are put under cultivation

Control / change of species composition: incorporation of fruits and legume trees

Other type of management: change of management / intensity level - intensity of cultivation and number of weeding has increased.

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Birr

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

8.6

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

1.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. land preparation during early rains
2. formation of bench terrace dry season
3. manuring dry season 1st application
4. planting/pitting during rains 2nd application
5. stone collection off farming season/dry season
6. layout, digging foundation off farming season/dry season
7. shaping stone off farming season/dry season
8. placing of stone off farming season/dry season
9. interlocking stone off farming season/dry season
10. giving shape off farming season/dry season

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 406.0 406.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 23.0 23.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 429.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 49.88

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. land preparation April / once
2. planting April, June / once
3. weeding and cultivation June/August / twice
4. repair in break stone walls dry season /as need arises
5. increasing heights & length of stone walls (side ways) while cultivating /as need arises
6. repair break in the check dry period/annual
7. raising the height dry period/annual
8. increasing the length dry period/annual

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 40.0 40.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 23.0 23.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 63.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 7.33
Comments:

length of structure

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

labour

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

593.00

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid
  • arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1001-1500 m a.s.l. (Ranked 1, 1001 m a.s.l) and 1501-2000 m a.s.l. (ranked 2)
Landforms: Also Footslopes (ranked 2) and valley floors (ranked 3)
Slopes on average: Also moderate (ranked 2) and hilly (ranked 3)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low
Soil drainage/infiltration is good
Soil water storage capacity is low (ranked 1) and very low (ranked 2)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • poor
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 100-200 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
60% of the land users are poor.
40% of the land users are poor.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (ranked 1, tillage is primarily done manually) and animal traction (ranked 2, large portion of farmers use oxen plough on gentle slopes)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

wood production

decreased
increased

Socio-cultural impacts

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil loss

increased
decreased
Other ecological impacts

Soil fertility

decreased
increased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%
Comments:

50% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: estimates

50% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: farmers who have implemented the technology have improved their income.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
conserve moisture
increases yield
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
high efficiency for storing soil and water,

How can they be sustained / enhanced? frequent maintenanace and upgrading
durable
forms bench fast

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules