Technologies

Mulching [Uganda]

Okubikka etaka nebisubi

technologies_1161 - Uganda

Completeness: 73%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Kateregga Matia

Rakai District

Uganda

SLM specialist:

Mazimakwo Kukundakwe

Kabale District

Uganda

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO (FAO) - Italy

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Improving soil fertility for both animal and perennial crops on flat area using mulching.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

It involves use of vegetative materials spread on the surface of the soil such as grass , crop residues and banana leaves.


Perennial crops are grown such as coffee, banana under this technology.

Purpose of the Technology: Of applying mulching was improve soil fertility to control soil erosion , improve soil structure.


Mulching applied also to increase agriculture outputs to improve the income among the farmers.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Mulching was initiated through community meetings held at local level.

Labor is used for clearing weed and cutting of grass for covering the surface of the soil.

Hoes, pandas are used as inputs for maintenance activities.
When the vegetative materials decompose like after one year, he cuts new grass for more covering of soil or spreading of vegetative materials to soil.

Natural / human environment: This village where the technology is applied, is located on gentle slope and other part is on flat area. It favors the growth of annual and perennial crops.
They receive two rainy seasons , one from March to late May; another one from mid August to December. This village also has 170 households . 45% of the members practice mulching , they grow crops for commercial and subsistence purpose. Both men and women are involved in all the activities.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Uganda

Region/ State/ Province:

Uganda

Further specification of location:

Rakai District

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Comments:

The farmer has 6 acres applied this technology on 4 acres currently.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The technology was initiated in 1986 by local farmers through community meetings.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • root/tuber crops - sweet potatoes, yams, taro/cocoyam, other
  • root/tuber crops - cassava
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • banana/plantain/abaca
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • coffee, open grown
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 42 Longest growing period from month to month: March to June Second longest growing period in days: 90 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to December

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): There is loss of top soil due to leaving soil bare , water can easily wash the soil from one place to another.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Deforestation and monoculture due to poverty among some farmers.

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Cp: Perennial (non-woody) cropping

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Crops which grow for one or two years are grown.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)
Cropland

Cropland

Comments:

Cropland: Ca: Annual cropping

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
Comments:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Type of agronomic measures: mulching

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Main causes of degradation: soil management (soil was not covered with grass.)

Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature (Reduces micro-organisms due to high temperature.), poverty / wealth (Deforestation purposely to earn a living.)

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The drawing shows mulching practice in the garden of Mr. Katerega of Kijonjo village -Kasasa
sub-county.

Location: Kijonjo village. Rakai District.

Date: 09/08/2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover

Secondary technical functions: increase in organic matter

Mulching
Material/ species: Grasses
Remarks: 50 big bundles per ha.

Author:

Kakuuto Community developement project.

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Buy hand hoe
2. Buy panda
3. Labour
4. Buy vegetative materials

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 6.3 6.3 100.0
Plant material Grass ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 81.3
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 81.3
Comments:

Lifespan of the products:
Hand hoe: 7 years
Panda: 4 years
Labour: 4 months
Vegetative materials: 4 months

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Clearing weed
2. Adding more vegetative materials

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Plant material Grass ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 125.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 125.0
Comments:

Length of structure.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labor was also expensive , which affects the cost.eg. for cutting grass for mulching.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

910.9 per month

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid
  • sub-humid

Thermal climate class: tropics

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1233.3 & 1633.2 m.a.s.l

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil texture: Medium (Crops on it grow well due to drained soil)
Soil fertility: High (Because crops mature faster and of good quality)
Topsoil organic matter: Medium (ranked 1, due to high rates decomposition of crop residues on soil) and low (ranked 2, on parts of the land without spreading vegetative material on it)
Soil drainage / infiltration: Medium (ranked 1, due to presence of micro-organisms that creates holes on soil) and poor (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity: High (the area has loam soil which favor water to stay in the soil)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: 5-50m (This village is on flat land)
Availability of surface water: Poor/none (ranked 1, especially in dry season) and medium (ranked 2, during rainy season (heavy rains))
Water quality (untreated): Good drinking water (they have two boreholes in the whole village)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

Biodiversity: Low (ranked 1, micro-organisms become scarce during heavy rainfall) and medium (ranked 2, moderate temperature ,crops grow well & bacteria present)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
25% of the land users are rich and own 65% of the land (Inputs available).
75% of the land users are poor and own 35% of the land (They lack inputs).
Off-farm income specification: Traders especially retailers' income ranging in 50%.
Level of mechanization: Manual labour (It involves use of light labour)
Market orientation: Mixed (ranked 1, grown for commercial & home consumption) and subsistence (ranked 2, production is on small scale,especailly perennial crops)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale
Comments:

0.5-1 ha (ranked 1): They have enough inputs.
<0.5 ha (ranked 2): Mainly the poor farmer(without inputs) belong here.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Comments:

Few farmers own land without tittles, water use rights is communal and farmers without land tittle pay some money to land lord 3500/= every year.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

20bunches

Quantity after SLM:

50

Comments/ specify:

banana production increasd pr mth

production area

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

<0.4ha

Quantity after SLM:

1ha

Comments/ specify:

size of prodn area increased due to increased benefits.

Income and costs

workload

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

45%

Quantity after SLM:

20%

Comments/ specify:

Spreading vegetation on top soil takes time.

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved
Quantity before SLM:

18%

Quantity after SLM:

55%

Comments/ specify:

Food production increased.

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

25%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Comments/ specify:

Indegenous conservation knowledge increased.

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

For those farmers who practiced on a large scale , outputs increased , leading to increased income.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

45%

Quantity after SLM:

0.5%

Comments/ specify:

Soil binding together.

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

3%

Quantity after SLM:

85%

Comments/ specify:

Mulching leads to increased moisture

soil cover

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

25%

Quantity after SLM:

90%

Comments/ specify:

vegetative material spread on soil.

soil loss

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

55%

Quantity after SLM:

1%

Comments/ specify:

top soil is protected.

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

20%

Quantity after SLM:

22%

soil compaction

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

20%

Quantity after SLM:

22%

Comments/ specify:

Failure of vegetative material to decompose.

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

15%

Quantity after SLM:

55%

Comments/ specify:

vegetative material decompose at high rate.

Climate and disaster risk reduction

fire risk

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

15%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Comments/ specify:

dry grass can easily catch fire.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

Comments:

In establishment benefits were low , and gradually became slightly positive compared to maintenance costs.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

62 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Farmers improvise inputs ,however much some of them are financially poor, they do utilize the little they poses to implement.

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Depending on the information from this respondent, he said that adoption is still little , due to lack of enough financial resources, to transport vegetative material to garden.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Improve soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Combination of technology should be applied(mulching & composting).
Increase production outputs.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? monitoring and evaluation activities should be conducted.
Reduces soil erosion.
It improves soil aeration.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Mulch constantly.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
It improves soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Combination of technology should be applied.
It increases water holding capacity of the soil.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Develop permanent attitude towards technology among farmers.
Improve soil structure.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintenance activity should be encouraged.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
It is very costly to some farmers. External financial support should be provided.
It may lead to compaction of soil. Mulch with soft vegetative materials.
It may lead to competition for soil nutrients &light. Avoid to mulch with weedy materials.
Mulches develop roots and become weed. Mulch with the good vegetative materials.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
It is very expensive in terms of maintenance and establishing. Financial support should be provided.
It may easily catch fire during suuny period. Constant monitoring of the site.
Mulches become habitats for pests like rats and termites. Spraying with some chemicals like rocket.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

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