Technologies

Use of organic matter (manure and compost) [Burkina Faso]

Apport de matière organique (French)

technologies_1220 - Burkina Faso

Completeness: 73%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Dorlöchter-Sulser Sabine

Misereor

Germany

SLM specialist:

Sani Mamadou Abdou

Programme d’Appui à l’agriculture Productive

Niger

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Programme d’Appui à l’agriculture Productive (GIZ / PROMAP)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Misereor - Germany

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Soils treated with compost or manure produce better yields, because they retain water better and are more fertile.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The regular application of manure and/or compost in sufficient quantities makes farming more intensive and reduces the need to bring more land under cultivation. Manure is used on cropland and compost is recommended particularly for market gardening.

Purpose of the Technology: The use of organic matter on cropland has three major effects: it reactivates biological activity, increases soil fertility by providing nutrients and improves soil structure by increasing the amount of organic matter in it. The improved soil structure also increases the infiltration of water into the soil. These effects favour crop growth and increase yields. The denser vegetation and improved soil structure make the land more resistant to water and wind erosion.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: There are two methods for obtaining organic matter for use as a fertiliser: the production of compost and the collection of manure. Manure is collected from improved livestock pens or sheds where livestock is kept on litter or bedding. Compost can be made in the dry season or in the rainy season. Biodegradable matter is mixed with animal waste for rapid decomposition or just with millet, sorghum or other plant stalks for slow decomposition. Both types of compost can be enriched with ash and/or natural phosphate. The biodegradable matter is placed in a pit. In the dry season, it is regularly sprinkled with water until decomposition is complete. It is then spread evenly over the land before sowing or planting.
Unlike compost, manure collected from improved pens or livestock sheds is not completely decomposed, and the decomposition process continues over several years.
The recommended amount varies depending on the type of soil the availability of manure and compost: 6 t/ha every third year (heavy clayey soils), 3t/ha every two years (sandy-clayey soils) or 2t/ha every year (light soils).

Natural / human environment: The use of compost and manure is recommended in conjunction with all other SWC/SPR measures to achieve the maximum benefit from investments in land improvement.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Burkina Faso

Region/ State/ Province:

Burkina Faso, Niger

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Developed, implemented and disseminated as part of projects and programmes undertaken from the 1980s onwards to combat desertification and improve natural resource management. Implemented by GIZ (German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation), PDRT (Projet de développement rural de Tahoua - Tahoua Rural Development Project), PASP (Projet de protection intégrée des ressources agro-sylvo-pastorales Tillabéri-Nord - Project for the Integrated Protection of Agricultural, Forest and Rangeland Resources in Tillabéri-Nord), and PATECORE (project for land development and resource conservation in Plateau Central Burkina Faso)

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • improve fertility

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 120; Longest growing period from month to month: August to October

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): low biological activity, low soil fertility, bad soil structure, low amount of organic matter, surface runoff, aridification, erosion by water and wind
Constraints of common grazing land
Constraints of forested government-owned land or commons

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated soil fertility management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
Comments:

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
Comments:

Main causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Unadapted landuse methods, reduced or abandoned fallow periods), floods, droughts, population pressure (rapidly growing population increasing pressure on land), land tenure (insecure access to land)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Biodegradable matter is mixed with animal waste for rapid decomposition or just with millet, sorghum or other plant stalks for slow decomposition. The biodegradable matter is placed in a pit. In the dry season, it is regularly sprinkled with water until decomposition is complete. It is then spread evenly over the land before sowing or planting.

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate
Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)
Secondary technical functions: water harvesting / increase water supply, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting, reduction in wind speed

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: Biodegradable matter, animal waste, plant stalks, ash and/or natural phosphate, manure collected

Author:

PASP

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Biodegradable matter is mixed with animal waste for rapid decomposition or just with millet, sorghum or other plant stalks for slow decomposition
2. The biodegradable matter is placed in a pit.
3. In the dry season, it is regularly sprinkled with water until decomposition is complete
4. It is then spread evenly over the land before sowing or planting.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Comments:

Machinery/ tools: shovel, wheelbarrow, etc.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Production of compost:
• constructing pits or basins
• water
• equipment (shovel, wheelbarrow, etc.).
Use of compost:
• transportation to plot by cart (100 kg of manure per donkey cartload)
• transportation to plot in head baskets (20 kg of manure per basket)
• spreading the compost on the plot (labour).

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low - medium
Soil drainage / infiltration is poor - medium
Soil water storage capacity is low - medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: > 10 m
Availability of surface water: Surface runoff generated by limited but intense rainfalls

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • poor
Gender:
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 3% - 4% (mostly poor households below poverty line).
Off-farm income specification: men migrate temporarily or permanently to cities for off-farm income

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Comments:

traditional land use rights on fields, communal land on pasture and forest land

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

The use of compost and manure improves yields and output, thereby improving food security. The sale of surplus production also increases household income

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

The use of partially decomposed manure also exposes crops to certain pests and to the risk of being scorched

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Comments:

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: transporting manure and compost poses a major hurdle for poor farmers who do not have a cart. This is a particularly serious problem when plots are at a distance from the village (outfields)

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
reactivates biological activity, increases soil fertility by providing nutrients and improves soil structure by increasing the amount of organic matter in it
The improved soil structure also increases the infiltration of water into the soil
The use of compost and manure improves yields and output, thereby improving food security. The sale of surplus production also increases household income.
The denser vegetation and improved soil structure make the land more resistant to water and wind erosion.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Manure and compost are often not available in sufficient quantities In spite of these drawbacks, manure is the form of fertilisation most commonly used by farmers, as it requires less work than compost.
Water is required to moisten compost during the dry season in order to ensure that it is kept at the right temperature for the decomposition of the biomass
transporting manure and compost poses a major hurdle for poor farmers who do not have a cart. This is a particularly serious problem when plots are at a distance from the village (outfields).
farmers are deterred from composting in the dry season because a nearby supply of water is needed and it involves a considerable amount of work
The use of manure on farmland entails some risks and disadvantages. As the manure is only partially decomposed – decomposition starts after the first rains begin – crops do not have enough nitrogen for a time. The use of partially decomposed manure also exposes crops to certain pests and to the risk of being scorched.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

01/07/2012

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Good Practices in Soil and Water Conservation. A contribution to adaptation and farmers´ resilience towards climate change in the Sahel. Published by GIZ in 2012.

Available from where? Costs?

http://agriwaterpedia.info/wiki/Main_Page

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