Caragana Korshinskii Planting a kind of SWC vegetative technology [China]

Ning Tiao Planting

technologies_1370 - China

Completeness: 65%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University (Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University) - China

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Caragana korshinskii, a kind of perennial shrub, is used to protect soil from water and wind erosion, rhizobium in its root can increase soil fertility.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Caragana korshinskii is a kind of perennial and drought resistant shrub being used to protect soil from water and wind erosion. It has long roots in and can extract water from deep soil layers. Its roots with rhizobium can improve soil fertility. So caragana korshinskii can be planted where water and /or wind erosion is serious. Its branch has economic value. In autumn before raining, caragana korshinskii seeds are planted into holes. In the first three or four years, It should be protected from cutting and sheep eating. From the fourth year its branches are cut as fodder or fuel or to make paper, its seeds are collected for sale, flowers are used to breed bees, and so on.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):


If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1,000-10,000 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 8362.4 km2.

Caragana korshinskii is one of most drought endurable shrubs. Once planted, it grows very fast.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):


3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-pastoralism (incl. integrated crop-livestock)



  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • root/tuber crops - potatoes
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • wheat
  • Caragana korshinskii
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Longest growing period in days: 160Longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Sep

Grazing land

Grazing land


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Serious water and/or wind erosion, poor economic development and lack of SWC knowledge.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Combined wind and water erosion, low crop yield, inadequate humus in soils, steep slope land.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

Water supply also rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt
  • integrated soil fertility management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Et: loss of topsoil, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, overgrazing, other human induced causes (specify) (Agricultural causes), land tenure (Land subdivision), poverty / wealth (Lack of captial), education, access to knowledge and support services (Lack of knowledge)

Secondary causes of degradation: labour availability (Lack of labour), Lack of enforcement of legislat./authority

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • adapt to land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Drawing of caragana korshinskii applied in the north of the Loess Plateau.

Location: Pianguan. Shanxi

Date: 2002

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, increase of surface roughness, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply, water spreading, reduction in wind speed, improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility

Trees/ shrubs species: Caragana korshinskii

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 32.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 25.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 20.00%


BAI Zhanguo, Beijing China

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. collecting seeds July to August
2. digging holes before raining in Autumn
3. seeding before raining in Autumn
4. watering

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 36 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. protecting young plants from sheep In the first three years
2. cutting of branches after four years /According to utilization
3. protecting young from insects from florescence /annual

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)


planting density, slope gradient and length, SWC area.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

manual labor, maintenance of young plants in the first 3-4 years.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

350~550mm in loess plateau mainly from June to September

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Landforms also hill slopes

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: low - medium

Soil drainage / infiltration: good

Soil water storage capacity: low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 100-200 persons/km2

Annual population growth: < 0.5%

20% of the land users are very rich (>1000).
14% of the land users are rich (800~1000).
49% of the land users are average wealthy (400~800).
14% of the land users are poor (200~400).
3% of the land users are poor (<200).

Off-farm income specification: The land users who applied the SWC technology can feed much more cattle, sheep and goat etc than those who do not take the SWC measure.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:



soil loss

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

167250 households

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

167250 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: estimates

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: More and more people become to know the importance of protection environment. More and more people get to recognize the economic value of planting caragana korshinskii.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Li Jinchuan, Wang Wenying, Lu Chongen. Exploration on Restoring Vegetations of Dump Land on An-Tai-Bao Surface Mine.. 1999.

Available from where? Costs?

Henan Science.17(Suppl.): 92-95.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Bai Yongqiang. Studies on Phenological Patterns of the Main Shrubs in Yanchi Sandy Land.. 1998.

Available from where? Costs?

Journal of Arid land Resources and Environment. 12(2): 82-86.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Yang Wenbin, Ren Jianmin, Jia Cuiping. Studies of The Relationship Between Physiological Ecology of Drought-Resist in Caragana Korshinskii and Soil Water.. 1997.

Available from where? Costs?

Acta Ecologica Sinica. 17(3): 239-244.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

u Xuewen. Visible benefits of developing Caragana korshinskii in Pianguan county.. 1987.

Available from where? Costs?

Economic benefits corpus of soil and water conservation, 10: 43-44.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Li Zhirong. To advocate for Caragana korshinskii.. 1987.

Available from where? Costs?

Economic benefits corpus of soil and water conservation. 10: 36-38.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zhao Zhizhong. Planting Caragana korshinskii extensively, breeding livestock to reach richness.. 1997.

Available from where? Costs?

oil and Water Conservation Science and Technology in Shanxi..3: 26-28.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Niu Xiwu. The distribution and description of Caragana Fabr. In China.. 1999.

Available from where? Costs?

Acta Bot. Boreal. Accident Sin. 19(5): 107-133.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Pan Ming, Zhao Jinrong. Benefits of Caragana korshinskii and its planting technology.. 1987.

Available from where? Costs?

Economic benefits corpus of soil and water conservation. 10:39-42.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Cheng Jimin. The Reasonable Utilization and Patterns of the Main Shrub Species In Southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.. 1991.

Available from where? Costs?

Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation. 11(1): 54-61.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Li Zizhen, Huan Zitan, Zhang Liping. Comprehensive Judgment of Sandfixing Benefits of Plants in the Ecological engineering of Sand Management.. 1997.

Available from where? Costs?

Journal of Lanzhou Univ.(Social Science). 25(4): 40-47.

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