Technologies

Wind forest strips for land protection against wind erosion on sandy soils [Tajikistan]

technologies_1451 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 78%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Kosumbekov Ahoyatbek

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Forestry Department of GBAO - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Pamir Biological Institute (Pamir Biological Institute) - Tajikistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Establishment of an 8-row shelterbelt consisting of different varieties of willow, poplar and sea-buckthorn to protect irrigated cropland with poor quality soil in the high Pamir region from wind erosion.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The 24m wide shelterbelt consists of eight rows of trees. Three plots, 50m wide and 350m long were left in-between the trees to intercrop with lucerne and other perennial herbs. Thus, the total area which includes the shelterbelts, meadows and irrigation ditches makes up nearly 10 ha. The shelterbelt was established perpendicular to the direction of the strong winds. Past trials have shown that under the harsh climatic conditions of the Pamir region, shelterbelts in sandy and pebbly areas should include at least eight rows of trees and shrubs.

Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of this technology was to intercrop the shelterbelts with lucerne in order to help protect crops from wind erosion.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Shelterbelts were planted by hand, not using any machinery. Trees and shrubs were planted in accordance with their physiological characteristics and their tolerance to deflation. The eight rows were planted in the following order: 1st row: sea-buckthorn, 2nd: Shugnan willows, 3rd: Thuran willows, 4th: Pamir poplars, 5th: Bolle's poplars, 6th: Wilhelm’s willows, 7th: Shugnan willows and 8th: Sea Buckthorn. The distance between trees in each row was 4m. Willows and poplars were planted as cuttings, around 1.5–3m in length cut off at the point at which the diameter of the base was around 6cm. Sea buckthorn was planted as seeds at a depth of 4-6cm. Horizontal planting, which increases the growth by 25%, was used instead of vertical planting. The trees were planted between late March and early April. Furrow irrigation ditches were dug before the actual planting of the trees. The irrigation ditches were 0.3m deep and 0.5m wide. The plot was then watered before the actual planting of the trees and the Lucerne, to increase the soil moisture and improve the subsequent growth of the trees. Further watering of the area was carried out every 4-7 days depending on the weather conditions and levels of moisture in the soil. These willow and poplar trees can be pruned 5-6 years after the initial planting. At this stage the branches will be 1-3 m long and can be used by the local population.

Natural / human environment: The plot is located in an arid zone which has sandy and pebbly soil with low fertility. Initially this area was covered by Tugai forest and used as grazing land as well as for timber production. However, as a result of deforestation, the land in this area has become highly unstable and poses a threat to the irrigated lands upslope. 80% of the soil consists of stones and sand. Vegetation cover is mainly composed of sagebrush deserts. These shelterbelts were established during Soviet times and when the civil war broke out after independence, many of the poplar trees were cut down by the local population for construction- and firewood. Therefore only parts of the original shelterbelts are still in place today.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

GBAO

Further specification of location:

Ishkashim

Comments:

Boundary points of the Technology area: 36.40.46 - 71.47.28 36.40.37 - 71.47.26 36.4051 - 71.47.01 36.40.36 - 71.47.02

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.1 km2.

about 10 ha

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

58 years ago

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - alfalfa
  • root/tuber crops - potatoes
  • vegetables - root vegetables (carrots, onions, beet, other)
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • poplar, wilow, sea-buckthorn
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 150Longest growing period from month to month: from May to September

Is intercropping practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

trees to intercrop with lucerne and other perennial herbs

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • Tree plantation, afforestation
Products and services:
  • Fuelwood
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Nature conservation/ protection
  • Protection against natural hazards
Unproductive land

Unproductive land

Specify:

Wastelands, deserts, glaciers, swamps, recreation areas, etc

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): land loss, soil fertility decrease, desertification of the area, poverty,

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): land degradation, land fertility decrease, deforestation, poverty

Plantation forestry: Yes

Forest products and services: fuelwood, fruits and nuts, grazing / browsing, nature conservation / protection, protection against natural hazards

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S11: Others
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
Comments:

Main measures: vegetative measures

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -against wind, aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Ed: deflation and deposition
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Ed: deflation and deposition

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (excessive cutting of natural trees and shrubs), wind storms / dust storms (during the wind storm sand covers the cultivated lands), land tenure (more of the forests destroyed in transition period), poverty / wealth (shortage of electricity was the main reason of forest degradation)

Secondary causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (grass was used for livestock), overgrazing (overgrazing of the natural forests by livestock)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Location: GBAO. Ishkashim

Date: 20.04.2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (All the works are simple for implementaton)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (All the works are simple for implementaton)

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), reduction in wind speed, increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use

Secondary technical functions: increase of surface roughness, improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater

Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 390
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3

Aligned: -linear
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 20 kg seeds
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 4

Trees/ shrubs species: sea-buckthorns, willows and poplars

Perennial crops species: alfa alfa

Grass species: alfa alfa

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 0.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 0.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.20%

Author:

Qadamov Aslam, Gulmamadov St.52/7 apt.11

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. digging of pits for tree planting first year
2. planting of trees first year
3. sowing of the alfa-alfa in drills every 5 years
4. construction of irrigation canals

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Digging of pits for tree Persons/day 10.0 18.0 180.0 100.0
Labour Planting of trees Persons/day 10.0 10.0 100.0 100.0
Labour Sowing of the alfa-alfa in drills Persons/day 8.0 3.125 25.0 100.0
Labour Construction of irrigation canals Persons/day 15.0 15.0 225.0 100.0
Equipment Shovels and other tools pieces 30.0 1.0 30.0
Plant material Seedling pieces 400.0 0.11 44.0
Plant material Alfalfa sees kg 20.0 0.65 13.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer kg 45.0 2.244444 101.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 718.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 718.0
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. sanitary cutting and pruning every year
2. cutting of alfa alfa three times per year
3. maintenance of the irrigation system every year

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Sanitary cutting and pruning Persons/day 3.0 3.333 10.0 100.0
Labour Cutting of alfa alfa Persons/day 5.0 12.0 60.0 100.0
Labour Maintenance of the irrigation system Persons/day 2.0 22.5 45.0 100.0
Equipment Scissors pieces 3.0 10.0 30.0
Equipment Tools pieces 7.0 1.0 7.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 152.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 152.0
Comments:

wind breakes and grass strips

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

seeds and seedlings cost

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

average annual rainfall - 110 mm, during winter - spring times, 5 - 6 month of dry time

Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: boreal. 3 months below 5°C and 6 months above 5°C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone is 2600 m

Slopes on average are 10 - 14°

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil texture consists of about 70% of sand and 30% of clay

Soil fertility is low, with humus about 0.2 - 0.3 %

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium and during the summer time soil waters rise up to 1m from top soil

Soil water storage capacity is low because of the sandy soil

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

good

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Availability of surface water also medium, but good water availibility during vegetation time

Water quality (untreated) is good because water comes from glaciers

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Level of mechanization:
  • animal traction
  • mechanized/ motorized
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%

10% of the land users are average wealthy and own 5% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 70% of the land.
30% of the land users are poor and own 25% of the land.

Market orientation of production system: Products are for subsistence needs mainly but for sale as well

Level of mechanization: Animal traction is available fro most landusers, but machines only for some landusers.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale
Comments:

< 0.5 ha for forests.

Average land size is 1.5 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

wood production

decreased
increased

risk of production failure

increased
decreased

product diversity

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

irrigation canals are protected and therefore don't have to be cleaned from sediments every year

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

80%

Comments/ specify:

technology increases yield from croplands

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Comments/ specify:

during field work farmers acquire knowledges about erosion and methods to prevent it

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Comments/ specify:

poor farmers get opportunity to use more croplands

Livelihoods and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Because of increased knowledge of the local farmers about erosion, reduce wind storm related diseases

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

increased
decreased

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

20%

Comments/ specify:

windbreak rows conserve soil moisture

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

100%

Quantity after SLM:

20%

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

100%

Quantity after SLM:

20%

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well
Comments:

No, drought is only a problem if it lasts longterm (for a year or more)

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

81 Households

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

81 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: unfortunately, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and during the civil war people cut down all the shelterbelts for fuelwood, some people have starte to rehabilitate the shelterbelts as they understand their importance, but it is difficult because there is no material support

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Low cost of the technology as compared to other technologies
The use of local sorts of trees and shrubs allows to apply this technology in any climatic zone of the Pamir
High tolerance of selected sorts of trees and shrubs to sand storms, which has been confirmed by multiple practical surveys

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Willows and poplar trees are prone to various diseases use herbicides
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Forest strips need irrigation construction of irrigation system
Willows and poplar trees are prone to various diseases use herbicides

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules