Silvi Pasture [India]


technologies_1470 - India

Completeness: 61%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Mewara Ramesh


1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Comprehensive watershed development

Comprehensive watershed development [India]

Participatory approach that includes a package of measures leading to empowerment of communities to implement and sustain watershed development.

  • Compiler: David Gandhi

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Regeneration of degraded hill side using structural, vegetative & managerial measures.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Managerial Measures : awareness generation amongst community, users groups, area closure, cut & carry system; Structural Measures :- contour trenches, gully plugs, sunken structure for run off and erosion control; Vegetative Measures :- seeding of grasses and shrubs, plantation of dryland fruit & forest tree species, vegetative barriers across slopes & gullies.

Purpose of the Technology: Short term benefits :- increased fodder availability, increase in well water levels, increased soil moisture in foot hill crop lands; Long term benefits :- environmental regeneration leading to increased production from non-arable & surrounding arable lands.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Madhya Pradesh

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):


If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 79.33 km2.

The project area comprises 26 villages (2286 HH) mainly tribal. A significant portion of the area is uncultivable waste which is used for open grazing. The technology "Silvi-Pasture" was implemented in few villages to demonstrate an integrated system of SWC and production.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Learning from visits to successful watershed development projects.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Silvo-pastoralism



  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - grasses
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • fruits, other
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Longest growing period in days: 120 Longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Oct Second longest growing period in days: 120 Second longest growing period from month to month: Nov - Mar

Grazing land

Grazing land

Intensive grazing/ fodder production:
  • Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Azadirachta indica
  • Jatropha, Salai (cf. Boswellia serrata), Lantana

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Grass land :- Degradation due to over grazing; Crop Land :- Low yeilds due to erosion, low soil moisture, improper cultivation practices on sloping lands.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Low yields of grass and crops

Trees/ shrubs species: Jatropha, Salai, Neem (Azadirachta indica), Lantana
Fruit trees / shrubs species: Awla (goose berry)
Grass species: Stylo Hemata, Dicanthus(Dinanath)

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Water supply: Also mixed rainfed - irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • area closure (stop use, support restoration)
  • cross-slope measure
  • surface water management (spring, river, lakes, sea)

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (Social causes - Lack of awareness and mobilisation amongst the communities.), Top down approach (Macro planning rather than micro (village level) planning.)

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical Drawing of SWC technology area, Tikhipada

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard

Trees/ shrubs species: Jatropha, Salai, Neem, Lantana

Fruit trees / shrubs species: Awla (goose berry)

Grass species: Stylo Hemata, Dicanthus(Dinanath)

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 35.00%

Construction material (earth): Excavation of earth for trenches/ditchs/pans

Construction material (stone): Stone plugs in gullies

Construction material (other): Vegetative support to stone plugs & ditches

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 35%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: land use planning - Silvi Pasture

Change of land use practices / intensity level: land use change - Area Closure

Control / change of species composition: livestock management - Cut & carry system

Other type of management: Management by community( User Group)


David Gandhi

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Digging of plantation pit Summer
2. Procurement of seeds, plants Before rainy sesion
3. Sowing of grass & shrub seeds Before Ist shower
4. Planting of saplings After Ist heavy shawer
5. Survey/Layout April (summer)
6. Excavation of ditches May
7. Transportation of stones to site May
8. Construction of sediment/sand trap May
9. Excavation of Pan(Doh) May 2nd year
10. Discussion with community & exposure visit Feb
11. Formation of users group, meeting, preparation of action plan March
12. Establishment of structural measures & training of users group April-Jun
13. Establishment of vegetative meassures July-Sep.
14. Area Closure April-Oct.
15. Harvesting & distribution of grass by users group Oct.-Nov.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 24 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding , mulching 2-3 month after planting /Twice in year for Ist 2 year
2. Watering Dry season /During prolonged dry spells
3. Reseeding of grass/shrubs Before Ist shower /Upto 2 years
4. Casualty replacement After Ist heavy shower /Year 1 & II
5. Repair of breaches in ditches/traps July-Sep. during mansoon/As required
6. Construction of additional traps July-Sep. during mansoon/As required
7. Desilting of Ditches/traps/Pans Oct.-Nov. after mansoon/Annually
8. Refresher training of users group Seasonally /
9. Regular meeting of users group / 3 times/year
10. "Shramdan" ( Voluntary labour by usersfor maintenance)

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)


The treatment covered an area of aroung 10 ha. 1- Contour Trenches - 6000 Rmt. 2- Large Boulder Check - 58 3- Small Boulder Check - 55 4- Dugout - 1 No. 5- Doh - 1 No. Seeding with jatropha, stylo and dinanath. Planting of saplings.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

1- Slope : - Due to steep slope , interval between contour trench lines was less; 2- Soil Depth : - Due to stony strata, excavation cost was high; 3- Material : - Boulders were transported from outside. 4- Lead/Lift : - Due to steep slope, labour output was less 5- Drought :- Replantation costs were high

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

However during 1999 to 2002 below average

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid
  • arid

Semi arid (ranked1)
Arid (ranked 2, due to 3 years of below avg. rainfall, signs of desertification eg. thorny species, lowering of water levels in wells are apparent)

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Landforms: Hill slopes (ranked 1) and ridges (ranked 2, isolated hillcock)
Slopes on average: Steep (ranked 1, conical Shaped hillock - upper slope > 30%) and hilly (ranked 2, conical Shaped hillock - lower slope < 30%)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Very shallow (highly eroded surface, exposed parent rock)
Soil texture: Coarse/light (weathered fragments(Kopra))
Soil fertility: Very low (absence of soil)
Topsoil organic matter: Low (absence of vegetation)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Poor (high runoff from stony surface)
Soil water storage capacity: Very low (high runoff from stony surface)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • poor
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
18% of the land users are average wealthy (4 H.H.).
59% of the land users are poor (13 H.H.).
23% of the land users are poor (5 H.H.).
Off-farm income specification: Around 10% of the total income is from paid labour/migration

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology


15% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

340 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Elemets of the technology have been adopted by land users eg. SWC, grass improvement. There is tremendous pressure on grass land due to large number of local cattle & goats, migratory herds of camel & sheeps. Hence spontaneous adoption is not observed since community mobilisation is essential as also efforts for user rights.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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