Gully rehabilitation [Tajikistan]

technologies_1541 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 76%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Boev Jahonbek

Tajik Soil Institute


Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Soil Insitute (Tajik Soil Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
NCCR North-South (NCCR North-South) - Kyrgyzstan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Gullies are stabilized through the establishment of a gabion and the plantation of spanish drok (Spartium junceum L).

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The research station of the Soil Science Institute tested the stabilisation of large gullies created by water erosion through the plantation of Spanish drok (Spartium junceum L). The plantation of Spanish drok was introduced in 1972 for the first time in the research field station. Spanish drok is a perennial plant and has the ability of spreading fast through its roots and also via seeds. Most of the gullies are covered with Spanish drok by now. In total 150,000 seedlings were planted at the research station.

Purpose of the Technology: Water erosion is highly threatening croplands by washing away the fertile topsoil. Severe gullies have formed on the hilly slopes. The research station of the soil institute therefore selected a number of gullies to test different techniques of rehabilitation.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: In a first step a survey of gullies in the vicinity of the research station was conducted in order to determine an appropriate place for testing the stabilization. Spanish drok was planted and spread very fast through vegetative underground reproduction until the whole gully was covered. A gabion made out of stone and concrete was constructed at the foot of the gully. It contains a pipe to allow for outflow of excess water. Maintenance of the technology is less cost efficient and doesn't involve much cost associated activities.

Natural / human environment: The positive results of the implementation of this technology are very important as there is a great need for spreading it to other areas suffering from the same problems in Tajikistan. Spanish drok is generally not available in Tajikistan. Nowadays, the research station is providing seedlings for sale to interested farmers with a cost of roughly $ 0.40 per seedling.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:

Javanon, Karsang

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

through the Karsang field research station

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
  • spanish drop

Longest growing period from month to month: April through November


Major land use problems (land users’ perception): loss of arable land, development of gullies, water erosion

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • cross-slope measure

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S5: Dams, pans, ponds

Main measures: vegetative measures, structural measures

Type of vegetative measures: scattered / dispersed

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects

Main type of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Wo: offsite degradation effects

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (It usually rains in March-April with duration of 20-45 minutes)

Secondary causes of degradation: wind storms / dust storms (Wind storms in winter), droughts (Hot summer months without rain)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Scheme of how the Spanish Drok was planted on a eroded slopes of Karsang Research Field Station.

Location: Karsang Research Field Station. Javonon, Karsang

Date: 16-07-2012

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides)

Scattered / dispersed
Number of plants per (ha): 5000
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.2

Trees/ shrubs species: Spanish drop.

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 25%

Wall/ barrier
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.2
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 1.2
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.2
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 3.5

Construction material (stone): stone and concrete was used for the establishment of the gabion

Construction material (concrete): stone and concrete was used for the establishment of the gabion


Q. Shokirov

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Selection of area early spring
2. Planting of spanish drop early march
3. Construction of gabion

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Selection of area Persons/day 30.0 30.0 900.0
Labour Planting of spanish drop Persons/day 36.0 30.0 1080.0
Labour Construction of gabion Gabion 1.0 700.0 700.0
Construction material Stones Gabion 1.0 800.0 800.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 3480.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 773.33
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Tajik Soil Institue


Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. As the plant spreads through root propagation, the dispersal has to be limited by removing some of the plants every year

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

buying seeds, tools, additional labor cost needs to be filled out more.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • concave situations

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium

Soil water storage capacity is low

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

10% of the land users are average wealthy.
90% of the land users are poor.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)

Research station belongs to the State, but land is leased to the local farmers for use.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


wood production

Comments/ specify:

Spanish drok is used as firewood, increased availability

production area

Comments/ specify:

Prevents gullies from spreading and destroying production area

Income and costs


Comments/ specify:

No need to take care of eroded land every year

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

Farmers are aware of erosion problems and benefits of Spanish drok

Livelihood and human well-being

Comments/ specify:

Many farmers have now understanding of mitigating soil erosion by water with the use of Spanish Drok.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff


groundwater table/ aquifer




soil moisture


soil cover


soil loss

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C


habitat diversity

Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding


buffering/ filtering capacity


damage on neighbours' fields


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive


Full establishment of the Spanish drok takes about 10 years, however, through the establishment of the gabion some immediate benefits occur

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):


Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

Comments on acceptance with external material support: The technology was implemented through the research station using their employees.

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Earlier Spanish drok was not yet known among the farmers as it is an exotic species. A handful of farmers have been interested and adopted the technology in their plots. According to farmers from the station more people are interested applying such technologies as a protection for soil erosion and establishment of gabions.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Affordable technology for land restoration and degraded plots.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Effectively puts a halt to water erosion.
The bushes provide valuable firewood for the local land users.
A special microclimate is created through the establishment of the plants with humidity being preserved all year long and birds and bees seem to use it as a preferred habitat.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The planting material is generally not available in Tajikistan, only now the research station is selling it to interested farmers, however, availability is still very localised. Farmer to farmer spreading of planting material in addition to providing planting material to the different tree nurseries in the country.
Spanish drok is very easily inflammable in the dry summermonths due to essential oils which can pose a potential risk. Good care has to be taken during the dry period and maybe some warning signs put up to tell people not to drop their cigarette stumps.
For the coverage of a whole gully with spanish drok about 10 years are needed as it happens through natural root propagation.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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