Animal manure use in a citrus orchard [Uganda]


technologies_2254 - Uganda

Completeness: 88%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Ojoadi Charles

Green Valley enterprise


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Uganda Landcare Network (ULN) - Uganda

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?



Application of animal manure improves the soil organic matter content, hence improving soil fertility.

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Application of animal manure on citrus trees (citrus sinensis) for improving soil productivity. Every beginning of season (March and August) 40 kg of animal manure are applied, 60 cm away from the tree trunk, using the ring method to improve soil fertility for increased yields and farm income.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Use of animal manure is a recommended agronomic practice for soil fertility enhancement in agro-ecosystems. Animal manure application contributes to the build-up of soil organic matter and supplies most of the required nutrients, both of which ultimately improve soil health and productivity. Additionally, manure improves the soil’s water holding capacity, improves soil structure, resulting into improved water infiltration and reduced runoff.

Animal manure is applied on citrus trees at the Green Valley Enterprise farm located in Adjumani District found in Northern Uganda. The farm lies on a gentle slope in an area with predominantly sandy soils. This area experiences a bimodal rainfall pattern with an annual average of 1000 mm. The farm is strategically located close to River Adidi, which is used to provide water for irrigation during the dry months. The purpose of animal manure application on the citrus trees is to increase soil fertility and health, thus improving fruit quality and quantity. Since the soils on the farm are sandy, the land user needs to have a good soil fertility and water management plan in place.

At the beginning of every cropping season, 70 bags of animal manure from cows, each weighing about 100 kg are bought and applied on over 111 citrus trees planted on an acre of land. The citrus trees are a mixture of Washington navel and Hamlin, planted at a spacing of 6×6 m. Before application, the animal manure is collected, heaped and left to decompose under shade at the owner’s kraal for 4 months. At the farm, the manure is applied using the ring method, that is, 60 cm radius from the tree trunk and covered with grass mulch. Forty (40) kg of the manure is applied per tree per season. Application of the animal manure on one acre is estimated to cost UGX 540,000, while maintenance costs are estimated to be UGX 50,000 per season.

At this farm, animal manure application has increased citrus fruit yields up to seven folds. When covered with grass mulch it improves soil moisture retention, hence the farmer is able to have two major harvests annually. In addition, the trees on which manure is applied are more tolerant to dry spells. The main disadvantages of use of animal manure are intensive labour requirement for handling, and variability in manure quality depending on the source.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Video showing animal manure being applied on oranges.




Elegu Central

Name of videographer:

Isa Yiga

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Northern Uganda

Further specification of location:

Elegu Central

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area

3.52880,32.00569 is located in Adjumani District, Northern Uganda.

The manure is applied in this case around the citrus trees 60cm away from the tree trunk.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Land user started applying manure 10 years ago after realizing low yields without the use of any fertilizers on his crops.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • banana/plantain/abaca
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • citrus
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Oranges are harvested in July and December

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?


The land use has not changed since application of animal manure, the oranges were grown 10 years ago.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

During the dry season, water is pumped from a stream that flows through the farm to irrigate the citrus trees .

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated soil fertility management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bl: loss of soil life

Application of animal manure enhances soil micro biomass

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

40 kg of animal manure are applied per citrus tree

citrus is planted at 8×8m

111 orange trees were planted, oranges planted are the Washington navel and Hamline type

The manure is applied using the ring method 60cm away from the tree trunk and covered with mulch


Prossy Kaheru



4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 acre

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

0.40 ha

other/ national currency (specify):

Ug Shillings (UGX)

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. heaping of manure Twice annually
2. transporting Twice annually
3. loading and offloading Twice annually
4. manure application Twice annually

The animal manure is applied twice annually, application is done at the beginning of the season, that is in March and September.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Heaping manure heaps 20.0 2000.0 40000.0 100.0
Labour Transporting heaps 20.0 5000.0 100000.0 100.0
Labour Application acre 1.0 50000.0 50000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides animal manure bags 70.0 5000.0 350000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 540000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 147.95
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

the land user bore all the costs

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. collecting and heaping manure Twice
2. transporting Twice
3. application of manure Twice

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour collecting heap 10.0 5000.0 50000.0 100.0
Labour 1.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 50000.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 13.7
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Costs are borne by land user


When it comes to application of animal manure, most of the costs are borne by the land user.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Quantities of the manure

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

The rainfall on set have delayed for the last 2 seasons (2016, 2017) from March-April

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

The soils according to the farmer are very poor.

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?




Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

sometimes it rains and the stream fills up causing flooding but this doesn't happen every season

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • high
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

He is growing a number of crops on his farm (tomatoes, sugar cane, citrus and bananas), on the farm there is also a woodlot.

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
  • men
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

He is an ex soldier who retired into farming and he has a number of on-farm income generating activities.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • large-scale

Average land holding of the people here is 2 ha. but he owns 5 ha of land.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • customary
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

This land tenure system land is owned communally

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Quantity before SLM:

75 oranges per tree

Quantity after SLM:

200 oranges per tree

crop quality

Comments/ specify:

with application of animal manure fruit sizes have increased

Income and costs

farm income

Comments/ specify:

farm income has increased though no records are given

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

The oranges are consumed by the family therefore providing nutritional benefits to family.

Ecological impacts


soil moisture

Comments/ specify:

Using manure has increased soil organic matter, which in turn increases fertility and soil moisture retention,

Climate and disaster risk reduction

drought impacts

Comments/ specify:

Because it increases soil fertility and soil moisture retention animal manure helps the citrus trees to tolerate dry spells.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements):

No off site impacts have been observed, however, continuous application of animal manure due to runoff can lead to eutrophication of streams

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
annual rainfall decrease well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Other climate-related extremes (disasters)
other (specify) How does the Technology cope with it?
Dry spells well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive


The land user attests that benefits surpass both establishment and maintenance costs

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Animal manure increases the quantity and quality of the citrus
It increases the water holding capacity
It improves soil fertility
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
It is improves agro-ecosystem functioning
increases farm income
improves food security of family

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
If not proper covered with soil or mulch, nutrients can easily be eroded cover it properly or apply beneath the soil
manure is not readily accessible outsource from different farmers
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
it is slow in action hence easily affected by weather it is applied on perennial crops
May contain excess salts

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

one informant

  • interviews with land users

one informant

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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