Gwoko nyig yen igang

technologies_2319 - Uganda

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Okello Vincent


Pagwari Fruit Farmers Association

Pader district, Acoro Sub-County , Acoro parish, Pagwari East village


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Different varieties of mangoes such as Banganapalle, Alphonso, Kesar, Haden, Bombay, Kent, Keitt, oranges such as Washington Navel, Valencies, Tangarine, jack fruits and avacados are grown for purposes of household income and soil fertility improvement.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Home fruit tree groves of grafted mango (mangifera indica) and citrus (citrus aurantium) is a farming practice that farmers practice in Northern Uganda to diversify their economic activity, for soil fertility improvement and household income.

Northern Uganda has tropical savanna climate which receives moderate amount of rainfall ranging from 750-1000mm per annum. The soils are moderately fertile with less organic matters coupled with soil erosion, which leads to low crop productions hence low incomes. The moderate rainfall is also unreliable which makes the region to experience drought. Farmers grow fruits as an alternative source of income.

This land user generates over 90% of his household income from fruit growing. The planted fruit trees increase the organic matter content in the soil when dry leaves decompose, rooting prevents soil erosion, pruned brunches are a source of fuel wood and trees acts as wind breaks. Major fruits grown include jack fruits, grafted mangoes, oranges and avocados.

For all these fruits, seeds are first planted in a nursery bed for a period for about two months with the following required inputs: hoes, pangas, spades, wheelbarrows, and shovels. Afterwards, transplanting into the gardens is done. Selection and clearing of the field is done and the planting holes are marked. Excavation is done in accordance to the slope direction: the top soil is put on the hillward side of the planting hole then the sub-soil is put on the downward side of the planting hole. The planting holes are dug in a square shape at 60*60 cm. Composite manure is mixed with top soil and applied into the hole to speed up the seedling establishment and to enhance growth. When planting, the hole is not fully filled but ends 5 cm below the surface so to enable water harvesting, moisture retentions and infiltration. This ensures ample soil moisture and water supply to plants.

The spacing for avocados is 8 × 8 m (65 seedlings/acre), jack fruits is 10 × 10 m (44 seedlings/acre), mangoes 10 × 10 m (44 seedlings/acre) and oranges 4 × 5 m (200 seedlings/acre). After planting, mulching is done by saw dust, kitchen waste like groundnut husks, vegetables and so on. 75 mangoes, 150 oranges, 20 avocados, 20 jack fruits and 4 grapes trees are spread evenly over the planting area. To realize maximum production, the land user needs to have constant water for irrigation.

On the other side, fruit tree growing has brought negative feelings from neighbors who don't promote this practice. Fruit farmers' lifestyle has changed due to revenues realised from growing fruit trees. To maintain this technology, weeding, pruning and creating fire lines during dry seasons to protect the farm is very critical . The technology is highly susceptible to pests and diseases that may require support from the local extension worker from time to time to be able to obtain high yields.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

General remarks regarding photos:

Fruit trees protect the soil from environmental degradation and its effects such as soil erosion and landslides.

2.4 Videos of the Technology




Pader District, Acoro parish, Pagwari East village.

Name of videographer:

Betty Adoch

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Northern Uganda.

Further specification of location:

Pader District, Acoro parish,Pagwari East village.


GPS point indicating the land user fruits garden

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Land user needs to generate income.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Tree plantation, afforestation:
  • Mixed varieties
Products and services:
  • Fruits and nuts
If land use has changed due to the implementation of the Technology, indicate land use before implementation of the Technology:

The land was use for brick making

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Drip irrigation is done during dry seasons

Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Livestock density (if relevant):

Cows: 5, Goats:7. Improved breeds of goat and cattle which are high yielding

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved plant varieties/ animal breeds
  • home gardens

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

The fruits gardens covers 2 acres of land.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type

Fruit growing promotes soil conversation.

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)

Fruit growing conserves the environment by preventing tree cutting.

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

The area initially was severly degraded by brick making work but after putting it under fruit growing, it became very fertile.

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology


Betty Adoch



4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

The fruit trees are planted on a generally flat average land size of 2 acres of land with following spacing: mangoes 10X10msq, jack fruits 10X10msq because it forms a big canopy, oranges 5X5 msq.

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

2 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3000 UGX

4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Site clearing for nursery bed Agronomic dry season
2. Raising the nursery Agronomic dry season
3. Digging planting holes Agronomic dry season
4. Applying composite manure Agronomic dry season
5. Transplanting at 15 to 30cm seedling high Agronomic onset of rain

Different fruit species have different nursery beds

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Site clearing for nursery bed Meters 2.0 10000.0 20000.0 100.0
Labour Raising the nursery Meters 2.0 10000.0 20000.0 100.0
Labour Transplanting Acres 2.0 50000.0 100000.0 100.0
Labour Pitting for fruit tree planting Acres 2.0 50000.0 100000.0 100.0
Equipment Pangas Pieces 10.0 5000.0 50000.0 100.0
Equipment Hoes Pieces 15.0 10000.0 150000.0 100.0
Equipment Axes Pieces 5.0 10000.0 50000.0 100.0
Equipment Wheelbarrows Pieces 4.0 95000.0 380000.0 100.0
Plant material String Pieces 4.0 5000.0 20000.0 100.0
Plant material Dipper Pieces 4.0 45000.0 180000.0 100.0
Plant material Watering can Pieces 2.0 25000.0 50000.0 100.0
Plant material Spray pump Pieces 4.0 75000.0 300000.0 100.0
Construction material Bamboo Pieces 10.0 10000.0 100000.0 100.0
Construction material Dry grass Bundles 5.0 3000.0 15000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1535000.0

The technology is technically easy to maintain once established and can be replicated by other land users.

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding Agronomic after every 3 months
2. Pest control Agronomic dry season use cow dung and driny use season pesticide
3. Stray animal control Agronomic dry season
4. Thieves control Agronomic rainy season
5. Prunning branches Agronomic rainy season
6. Buying pesticides Agronomic rainy season
7. Transportation to market Agronomic season of harvest
8. Buying mulching materials Agronomic onset of rain

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Hired labour Man day 4.0 3000.0 12000.0 100.0
Equipment Spray pump Piece 4.0 75000.0 300000.0 100.0
Equipment Irrigation during dry season Litres 10000.0 200.0 2000000.0 100.0
Equipment Syringe pipe Piece 1.0 2500.0 2500.0 100.0
Plant material Seedings Pieces 269.0 3500.0 941500.0 100.0
Plant material Composite manures Wheelbarrows 1.0 5000.0 5000.0 100.0
Plant material Stringes for making holes in a stright line Rolls 4.0 5000.0 20000.0 100.0
Plant material Peg for setting holes Boundle 1.0 10000.0 10000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Pesticides (dythen m45) kg 1.0 40000.0 40000.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 3331000.0

The land user has knowledge on agronomic practices.

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

High costs of labor
High transportation cost
Purchase of pesticides

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Heavy rains in April, May, August and September

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Pader weather station

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

Savanna climate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Loamy, silty soil at the top and deep down there is gravel. Soil pH is neutral and less saline.

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Very low water table

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • animal traction
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

The land user is a typical farmer who is contented with his lifestyle as a fruit grower due to the income derived from sale of fruits.

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

The land user bought the land from the community members.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

The land user has fenced his land and put marked stones.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Comments/ specify:

Due to the litter from the leaves, increased soil fertility leading to increased production.

crop quality

Comments/ specify:

Due to the nutrients from the soil.

fodder production

Comments/ specify:

Especially from the jack fruits wastes

risk of production failure

Comments/ specify:

Increased level of nutrients in the soil.

product diversity

Comments/ specify:

Because of the different fruit trees species planted.

production area

Comments/ specify:

The land user recently acquired additional plot of land (0.5 acres) from the sale of fruit trees.

land management

Comments/ specify:

Fruit trees reduce soil erosion and increase soil fertility due to leaves litter.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

Fruit trees dont require alot of inputs once established; minimal costs for reducing pests and diseases; minimized by the role of extension workers during trainings.

farm income

Comments/ specify:

From the sale of fruits and reduced expenses on farm in puts

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

From the sale of diverse fruit types (mangoes, oranges, jack fruits and others)


Comments/ specify:

Only labour for maintenance and monitoring against thieves

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

Income from sale of fruits is used to buy other household income.

health situation

Comments/ specify:

Daily portion of fruits within diet.

land use/ water rights

Comments/ specify:

Community bye-laws on controlled grazing and encroachment were put in place.

community institutions

Comments/ specify:

Local bye-law committee (LBC) was put in place and supported by the Sub-County and District Council.
Bye-law on controlled grazing and encroachment passed at Sub-County Level.

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

Trainings conducted by extension workers and fellow champion farmers, also integrating exposure learning events.

conflict mitigation

Comments/ specify:

The presence of the local bye-law committee and bye-laws reduced conflicts: no encroachment, no grazing on fruit gardens and no thieves.

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

Comments/ specify:

Integrating people with disabilities (PWDs) in fruit tree growing trainings and exposure learning events.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

Planted fruit trees control soil run off/soil erosion.


soil cover

Comments/ specify:

Due to vegetation litter, plant growth and reduced cutting of trees.

soil loss

Comments/ specify:

Due to vegetation litter, plant growth and reduced cutting of trees.

soil accumulation

Comments/ specify:

Due to vegetation litter, plant growth and reduced cutting of trees

soil compaction

Comments/ specify:

Due to vegetation litter, plant growth and reduced cutting of trees

soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Due to vegetation litter, plant growth and reduced cutting of trees

Climate and disaster risk reduction

landslides/ debris flows

Comments/ specify:

Due to planted fruit trees and soil&water conservation bye-law on tree planting.

drought impacts

Comments/ specify:

Planted trees reduce drought.

fire risk

Comments/ specify:

Due to firelines to control bush burning during dry season.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

damage on neighbours' fields

Comments/ specify:

Due to presence of strict community bye-laws.

Comments regarding impact assessment:

The technology is rewarding in the short, medium and long term and can be replicated by any farmer in any climatic region especially tropical regions.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature decrease very well
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season decrease very well
annual rainfall increase well
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase very well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought very well
forest fire very well
land fire moderately
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
landslide very well

This technology is drought resistant and manageable by any farmer who has the interest to practice it.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive


The fruits are locally sold expensively at 1000 UGX@ and raise much income to the farmer.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 10-50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

20 household

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 90-100%

The land user uses the little resources he has to establish the technology.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Constant supply of fruits provides high income to the land user. To realize maximum production, there is need for irrigation to have a constant fruit supply with support from extension workers who are readily available with the extension workers for technical advice.
The fruit trees modify the micro-environment making it conducive.
The technology is very rewarding, cost effective once established and can easily be replicated by other land users.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The technology is good for small , medium and large scale farmers due to its ability to improve soil fertility, increase production and household income.
Can easily be replicated by other land users.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Before establishment the technology requires some knowledge and skills on fruit growing which can be extended by the extension worker who are located far from the land user. Associated with high costs in terms of transport and allowances to the land user. Training and capacity building of local land users / experts.
Training champion farmers.
Establishment of learning sites / demonstrations.
Prone to climate change Irrigation during the dry season
Requires water supply Irrigation during dry seasons
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
High establishment costs associated with reduced maintenance costs both in the short, medium and long term. Adapt low cost practices for those starting and integrate with time and for those with low incomes.
Associated with high prevalence of pests and diseases. Risky to spray during flowering season. Close monitoring of the field all the time.
Seek technical advice from the extension worker.
Labour intensive at the time of establishment. Supplement with family labour.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys


  • interviews with land users


  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts


7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Do Trees on Farms Improve Household Well-Being? Evidence From National Panel Data in Uganda, Daniel, C.Miller,September 2020.2020.0010

Available from where? Costs?

On-line. Free of cost.

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all