Small ruminant management for manure production (goats) [Uganda]

Gwooko dyel pi kelo moc cam

technologies_2784 - Uganda

Completeness: 86%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Nyeko Alex

Laber Farm holdings


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?



Local breed goats housed in a goat shed produce manure for annual and perennial cropland.

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Local goat breeds housed in a shed to generate manure for annual and perennial cropland.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Small ruminants (goats) produce significant quantities of nutrient rich manure, which is useful for replenishing soil fertility for crop production. In Northern Uganda, this technology involves several goats, raised in a shade constructed often of wooden materials. An average shade covers about 10 m by 2.5 m, and raised up to 0.5 m off the ground to protect the ruminants from vermin such as snakes and rats, as well as rainwater flooding. The ground floor may be cemented so that the droppings are kept free from mixing with other pesticides and various chemicals used to control external parasites that may contaminate the manure. The droppings generated by the animals are collected from underneath the shade and heaped in a pit for composting. The pit is covered for about two weeks using a grass and soil or polythene paper. After this period, the compost manure is mature and is ready for application in the fields to increase production. Because this technology involves goats, it is relatively easier and cheaper to maintain than the case of cattle in terms of feeding and maintenance. Besides, it is more efficient in providing manure for soil fertility improvement since the droppings generated by the animals are collected from underneath the shade and heaped in a pit for composting and collected over time. Moreover, the demand for goat meat is often high, thus its price remains steadily high during the year. To be able to manage this technology and to achieve desired benefits, the farmer must keep in contact with the extension worker for veterinary services because goat diseases are rampant in the region and vary from simple skin ailments, diarrhoea to severe conditions causing, loss of weight, abortion and death. The most common infections include; Scours that are more common in young goats and dirty pens caused by bacteria, coccidia, worms or even showing the following signs; loss of appetite, diarrhoea (yellow to red discoloration), pasting of faeces under and around the tail, loss of weight and high temperature. Goats are well known for their strength and resilience to diseases. However, this does not necessarily mean that they are never affected. This often accounts for a substantial part of the cost of production.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Video showing small ruminant management for manure production (goats)




Kitgum District

Name of videographer:

Issa Aliga

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Western Uganda Region

Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Grazing land

Grazing land

Intensive grazing/ fodder production:
  • Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated crop-livestock management
  • integrated soil fertility management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A3: Soil surface treatment
structural measures

structural measures

  • S9: Shelters for plants and animals
management measures

management measures

  • M6: Waste management (recycling, re-use or reduce)

M6 (composting)

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
  • Ca: acidification
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Ps: subsidence of organic soils, settling of soil
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology





4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

Less than 0.5 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

5000 per person per day

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Drawing structural plan Once before establishment
2. Purchasing and assembling material once before estabslishment
3. Measuring and laying out plan/pitting Once during establishment
4. Contsruction of the struture During establishment
5. Manure collection and composting Routine

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour for construction on daily basis persons 3.0 5000.0 15000.0 100.0
Construction material poles Pieces 20.0 3000.0 60000.0 100.0
Construction material iron sheets Pieces 5.0 20000.0 100000.0 100.0
Construction material Nails kgs 5.0 3000.0 15000.0 100.0
Construction material wire mesh kgs 20.0 50000.0 1000000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1190000.0

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Manure collection and composting daily
2. Manure application to gardens monthly

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour labour on daily basis persons 3.0 5000.0 15000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 15000.0

All the costs are covered by the land user.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour takes most of the costs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?




5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • men
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Comments/ specify:

Due to application of manure.

Income and costs

farm income

Comments/ specify:

Income increased from the sale of goats and the sale of maize.

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

From goats, sheep, and maize.

Ecological impacts


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Due to application of animal manure.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

damage on neighbours' fields

Comments/ specify:

Due to controlled grazing.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual rainfall decrease moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases moderately

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:



Balanced at the time of establishment and positive within 1-2 years and more.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Relatively cheap because it uses locally available materials and labour.
Does not require expensive maintenance costs in terms of labour.
Special skills are required for management and maintenance. The land user can even use family labour.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Goats are on demand and income is guaranteed once the farmer has his ruminants ready for sale each goes to 100,000-200,000 UGX equivalent to 26.5- 57 Unites states dollars depending on the size.
Small ruminant manure is good at improving soil fertility and is nutritious and increase crop yields significantly.
Small ruminant requires medical/ veterinary attention which are readily available at sub-county level.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Susceptible to thieves. Provide security to guard against thieves.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The technology is susceptible to diseases if not managed well. This may result to deaths. Attend to the technology on a daily basis by cleaning the house shade and treating diseases.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys


  • interviews with land users


When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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