Fruit Tree Orchard of Mangoes and Oranges Integrated with Beans [Uganda]

Mukungwa ki mayembe, muranga idyare

technologies_2787 - Uganda

Completeness: 84%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Tusubira Peterson



Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?



Sustainable - Good at controlling soil erosion and can be replicated else where.

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Oranges (Citrus sinensis) and Mangoes (Mangifera indicate) integrated with beans are planted together in the same field to increase production and household income.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The technology is promoted by small scale farmers in Northern Uganda to address soil degradation including soil erosion, low crop productivity and low-income challenges both on farm and at household level. The farmer identified land with average size of 0.6 acres situated on a gentle sloping area (3-5%), measuring 45m wide x 95 m long planted with mangoes spaced 10m × 10m and oranges spaced 4m x 5m integrated with beans, NABE 14 and K20. The beans were planted using a line spacing of 10cm within a line and 30cm between lines with 2-3 seeds per hole. The selected bean varieties are high yielding and marketable. The following are the labour and input requirements for establishing this technology: a hoe, a tape measure, seedlings, 4 people and a panga.
Integration of beans into an already grown mango and orange field is a good and profitable practice because decomposition of the plant litter increases yields of the beans (nitrogen fixing) and the cost incurred, for example in weeding is less compared to the costs which would be incurred when the three enterprises (oranges, mangoes and beans) are planted separately on the same land.
Generally, benefits from implementing this technology are slightly positive ranging from improved soil fertility due to plant litter, reduced soil erosion with the fruit trees providing shade to the beans. After harvesting the beans, the farmer uses the bean waste/ residues as mulching material for the orchard which subsequently decomposes to provide manure. Also the beans cover reduces the moisture evaporation from the soil, thus keeping the soil moist
However, oranges, mangoes and beans are affected by pests and diseases and in case of this; the farmer is likely to suffer since they are planted in one field. The role of the extension worker is very critical at this stage in providing extension advisory services on how to spray the fruit trees when they get affected.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Video on showing orchard of mangoes and oranges integrated with beans in Omolo District




Aboli village, Abakri Parish, Kolo Sub-county, Omolo district

Name of videographer:

Issa Aiga

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Northern Region,Uganda

Further specification of location:

Omolo district

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

Map showing technology site in Northern Uganda.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Started on his own and later Operation Wealth Creation supported with training on how to space beans.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • integrated crop-livestock management
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
  • A5: Seed management, improved varieties
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S9: Shelters for plants and animals

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bl: loss of soil life

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology





4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

0.6 acres of land

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. site selection planted with Oragnes and Mangoes once before establishment
2. Look for labour and required tools Before establishment
3. Look for bean seeds Before establishment
4. Digging holes During establishment
5. Planting seeds During establishment

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour persons days paid on monthly basis persons 4.0 150000.0 600000.0 100.0
Equipment Hoe pieces 4.0 10000.0 40000.0 100.0
Equipment Tape measure pieces 1.0 7000.0 7000.0 100.0
Equipment Panga pieces 2.0 7000.0 14000.0 100.0
Plant material Bean seeds kgs 100.0 2000.0 200000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Pestcide litres 2.0 25000.0 50000.0 100.0
Other Training 1 1.0 50000.0 50000.0 40.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 961000.0

Equipment are bought at the time of establishment. Work load reduces during maintenance. 60% of training (seeds, facilitation, extension agent) covered by Operation Wealth Creation.

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding Once in a season
2. Spraying Once in a season
3. Harvesting Once in a season

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour persons days on monthly basis Persons 3.0 150000.0 450000.0 100.0
Equipment Spraying pump Pieces 1.0 75000.0 75000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 525000.0

Labour costs are for weeding, spraying and harvesting.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour takes most of the cost during establishing. The farmer only buys a spraying pump for maintenance.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Nov- Dec and March -April.

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • concave situations

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Soils are dry during Dec -March.

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

He is a business man dealing in a small merchandize items (salt, soap, beans).

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


production area

Comments/ specify:

Increased due to use of the intercropping space.

land management

Comments/ specify:

Due to litter.

Income and costs

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

Fruits (oranges and mangoes) and beans.


Comments/ specify:

Weeding and harvesting.

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:


Ecological impacts


soil cover

Comments/ specify:

Due to litter and mulching using bean residues.

soil loss


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Due to litter and mulching using bean residues.

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

Comments/ specify:

Mulching using bean residues.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

Comments/ specify:

Exposure to rainfall.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual rainfall increase well
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases moderately

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:



High costs for paying for labour and buying seed during establishment.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):


Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

Training offered by Operation Wealth Creation during integration of beans.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted:
  • climatic change/ extremes
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

Put in place a tree nursery.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Oranges provide shade for beans during sunshine.
Oranges provide staking materials for beans.
Easy to manage and improves fertility of the soil.
High yield with integration/ one crop as an alternative in case of crop failure.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Bean residues act as mulching material and its decomposition increases fertility and moisture of the soil.
Can be replicated elsewhere with other farmers.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Labour intensive: planting, wedding, watering and harvesting. Work in groups.
use family labour in addition to hired labour.
Easily affected by pests and diseases. Spray early enough before attack.
Seek guidance from the extension services on how to manage pests and diseases.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
High costs for purchase of seeds and labours. Join small savings groups.
Training on how farmers can have their own seeds and do it as a business.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys


  • interviews with land users


  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts


When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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