Enfoques

Water User Association [Tayikistán]

Ассотсиатсияи Истифодабарандагони Об

approaches_2458 - Tayikistán

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Especialista MST:
Usuario de la tierra:

Kassirov Gayur

WUA

Tayikistán

Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque si fuera relevante)
CARITAS (Switzerland) - Suiza

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

Management and control of the water distribution, maintenance of the infrastructure and water conflict resolution by the locally organized association

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Aims / objectives: Under the National land reform of the Republic of Tajikistan, land resources, which used to belong to kolkhozes and sovkhozes, were distributed to individual households. Such division had two consequences, on the one hand, villagers were given opportunity to develop the land privately as an income-generating source, and on the other hand, it intensified the conflicts over water. The government was not capable to solve the disputes over water and manage the water resources sustainably because of lack of finances and lack of staff. A water users association was created with the aim to replace the former Soviet water management system and to ensure systematic and timely distribution of irrigation water and maintenance, as well as to improve the infrastructure.

Methods: This approach involves thee different actors: association members (water users), the association and the government. The association members have to stick to certain conditions in order to join, namely, they have to pay annual membership fees and water taxes fixed by the government. Government, on its turn, ensures uninterrupted supply of the agreed amount of water and the association is responsible for the control and equal water distribution and all related technical works.

Stages of implementation: Steps involved in creation of the water users association.
1) Local leaders met with representatives of Vodhoz (local state agency, regulating water resources) to discuss creation of an independent association with a full mandate over irrigation water management; 2) Leaders organized a general meeting with people of 5 villages in Muminabad district to inform them about the role and importance of establishing a locally based association and discuss conditions for its membership; 3) Charter of the association was developed, 5 leaders representing villages were elected and the amount of a membership fee was agreed upon; 4) The association was registered as a legal entity; 5) Needed amount of water per growing season was calculated and agreed upon; 5) The Leaders (of association?) and Vodvoz concluded an agreement, according to which, Vodhoz is obliged to provide the required amount of water and the association leaders agree to collect the determined fees for water from the water users and to deliver it on time to Vodvoz.


Role of stakeholders: The role of the three main stakeholders (Vodhoz, association and water users) is to follow the rules of the association. There is a strong element of trust among the association and its members.

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado

País:

Tayikistán

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Khatlon

Especifique más el lugar :

Muminabad

Comentarios:

270 ha

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Indique año del inicio:

2010

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • iniciativa local reciente/ innovadora

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (regulation of water distribution, water conservation, conflict resolution)

To establish a responsible body, recognized by the government and accepted by the local people, to manage water related issues and to maintain as well as to improve conditions of the infrastructure in the local level.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The approach is addressing the problem connected with the use of the water resource. Incapability of the government to manage waters on the village level resulted in conflicts over water use, misusage of water and abundance of the infrastructure. This condition had a direct effect to productivity and to food security as a consequence.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • impiden

No funds available to maintain the infrastructure

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Annual membership fees

entorno institucional
  • impiden

No strong and effective mechanism to regulate irrigation water resources at the local level.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Establishment of the water users association at the local level and respresented by local people.

marco de trabajo legal (tenencia de tierra, derechos de uso de tierra y agua)
  • impiden

Unclear situation with regard to water use rights and obligations.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The condition that association was represented by the local leaders enlarged the trust among the population. During the general meetings local leaders of the association explained for what villages are paying and where money would be invested.

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

Association leaders

  • especialistas MST/consejeros agrícolas
  • gobierno nacional (planificadores, autoridades)

Water Agency/VODHOZ

Si varias partes interesadas estuvieron involucradas, indique la agencia principal:

Association leaders

3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación interactivo It was members of the local community, who thought of the idea and they approached the local water agency.
planificación interactivo Local leaders organized the meeting where all interested villagers participated.
implementación apoyo externo Implementation was entirely through the local community.
monitoreo y evaluación ninguno
Research ninguno

3.3 Flujograma (si estuviera disponible)

Descripción:

Organizational chart showing the establishment set up of the Water User Association

Autor:

Sady Odinashoev

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • solamente usuarios de tierras (autoiniciativa)
Explique:

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by land users* alone (self-initiative / bottom-up)

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
  • personal de campo/ consejeros
Forma de capacitación:
  • en el contexto de trabajo
  • reuniones públicas
  • cursos

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

No

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • sí, mucho
Especifique el nivel o los niveles en los que se fortalecieron o establecieron las instituciones:
  • local
Especifique el tipo de apoyo:
  • financiero
  • construcción de capacidades/ entrenamiento
  • equipo

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?

Comentarios:

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

area treated aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

area treated aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through measurements; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were None monitored by project staff, government, land users through measurements; indicators: None

There were several changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: None

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?

No

5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • 10,000-100,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international: 80.0%; local government (district, county, municipality, village etc): 10.0%; local community / land user(s): 10.0%

5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

No

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • equipo
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
herramientas totalmente financiado
  • construcción
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
piedra totalmente financiado
madera totalmente financiado
  • infraestructura
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
caminos totalmente financiado
escuelas totalmente financiado
Si la mano de obra de usuarios de tierras fue un insumo sustancial, ¿fue:
  • pagado en efectivo?

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?

No

6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Increase of yield. Farmers receive more yield from the small plots.

¿El Enfoque empoderó a grupos en desventaja social y económica?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho
Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Since the certain mechanism of water management was developed, water disputes significantly reduced and productivity increased

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • producción incrementada

to improve crop production

  • incremento de la renta(bilidad), proporción mejorada de costo-beneficio

to improve yield

  • carga de trabajo reducida
  • conciencia medioambiental
  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

improvement of villagers' well-being, whose main income comes from the agriculture

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Water management through such associations is of states' interest as well, and therefore state supports minilar initiatives.
Conflict resolution: Association leaders act as a conflict resolving body and due to their respectful position in the community, they are able to avoid serious conflicts.
Transparency: Association is initiated and regulated by the local leaders, therefore there is much more trust on them among water users.

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
sometimes it is difficult to collect money from water users.
membership fee is too low and not enough to make significant investment to maintanence of the infrstructure.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo
  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

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