Enfoques

Access to thermal insulation through micro loans [Tayikistán]

Tajikistan - Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM/ИСЦАУЗР)

approaches_2575 - Tayikistán

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Especialista MST:
Nombre del proyecto que facilitó la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque (si fuera relevante)
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, Tajikistan (WB / PPCR)
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque si fuera relevante)
CACILM Multicountry Capacity Building Project (CACILM Multicountry Capacity Building Project) - Kirguistán

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?

2010

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

1.4 Referencia/s al/los Cuestionario(s) de Tecnologías MST

Thermo insulation of walls with use of foil to decrease burden on firewood use
technologies

Thermo insulation of walls with use of foil ... [Tayikistán]

This technology is designed for the high altitude mountains areas, where biomass and growing trees are limited, first because of the harsh climatic conditions and secondly because of the limited arable lands for growing biomass and forests. Thermo insulation is applied in order to keep warmth inside and save using ...

  • Compilador: Askarsho Zevarshoev

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

Provision of small scale loans for private households to ensure access to thermal insulation (in the frame of CACILM).

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Aims / objectives: In GBAO as in most parts of Tajikistan, natural resources such as firewood from riparian forests and teresken shrubs, remain the main source of fuel for heating and cooking. Due to poor insulation of local houses, and inefficient cooking stoves, much fuel is burned. The aim is to ensure access to energy efficient technologies through the provision of a micro loan 'Warm comfort' is one of the ways to improve house thermal insulation, reduce fire wood consumption, improve the living standards of residents and reduce pressure on the environment.

Methods: On the basis of financial and technical documentation prepared by field officers and clients MLO Madina made the decision to allocate up to US$500, (2.5% interest rate to be reimbursed within 12 months) to the project. The thermal insulation loan is given in kind and not in cash. The client receives all necessary materials and services for the value it has to reimburse in accordance with the micro loan contract and individual repayment schedule.

Stages of implementation: The process of a micro loan for thermal insulation consists of the following steps: 1) Meeting with the rural population and interviews; 2) information event on energy efficient products and micro loan; 3) Financial analysis to explain micro loans, procedures, household income and expenses analysis; 4) Technical analysis of potential houses to specify types of material needed, type of work, prepare outline of the house; 5) Decision by the MLO Committee to allocate loan; 6) Micro loan contract and work plan; 7) Preparation of thermal insulation works; 8) Implementation of thermal insulation works; 9) Reimbursement of micro loan

Role of stakeholders: The role of each participating stakeholder is indispensable to ensure a smooth flow for the whole process. The funding organisation assists the micro loan organisation with increasing its portfolio and provide loans for thermal insulation. The micro loan organisation develops the micro loan product for thermal insulation, it is responsible for monitoring and it is also part of the committee, which decides to allocate loans. Micro loan field officers in the villages provide financial information on households, which serves as basis for the committee to make the decision. They also regularly monitor the loan reimbursement. Agreement is established with suppliers of quality doors and windows, as well as suppliers of insulation materials such as cement, reflective foil, etc. to have a stable supply of required products. Qualified construction workers trained on thermal insulation install quality doors and windows, improve insulation of existing doors, windows, floors and ceilings. Recipients of the micro loan must show a willingness and an ability to repay the loan.

Other important information: Apart from thermal insulation measures, the micro loan is also available for other energy efficiency products such as: ram pumps, swimming pumps, rain water catchment systems, drip irrigation systems, winter heating and cooking stoves, summer cooking stoves.

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado

País:

Tayikistán

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Tajikistan/Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous oblast

Especifique más el lugar :

Roshtkala

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Indique año del inicio:

2009

Comentarios:

This approach is implemented in Shugnan, Murgab rayons, and also in Ishkashim

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • proyecto/ basado en un programa

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

The Approach focused mainly on other activities than SLM (Micro loan, thermal insulation)

The aim is to ensure easier access to micro loans in order to make it more affordable for the local households to improve their house thermal insulation, and thus reduce fire wood consumption, mitigate health risks, improve general well being and in the longer term, reduce pressure on the environment.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Use of large amounts of firewood/teresken, thus depleting natural resources, to provide heat due to poor house insulation. Lack of sufficient finances to improve house insulation.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • impiden

Households do not have enough financial resources available to buy afford thermal insulation for their houses.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Offer micro loans with a low interest rate to be repaid within 12 months

marco de trabajo legal (tenencia de tierra, derechos de uso de tierra y agua)
  • facilitan
  • impiden
conocimiento de MST, acceso a apoyo técnico
  • impiden

Lack of technical knowledge on thermal insulation techniques

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Technical support, recommendations and conducting thermal insulation

carga de trabajo, disponibilidad de mano de obra
  • impiden

Households spend a large amount of time on collecting fuel resources to burn for heating and cooking

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Less workload due to reduced required amount of fuel

otros
  • impiden

Lack of knowledge about the correlation between poor insulation and fuel consumption.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Awareness raising about positive effects of thermal insulation and product promotion

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

Households who took out a loan for thermal insulation

Households which cannot afford thermal insulation costs in one go, as it is a big financial burden for them, make use of the micro loan. Especially, female-headed households that have very little income.

  • especialistas MST/consejeros agrícolas

Thermal insulation advisers

  • ONG

MLO 'Madina'

Approach was developed jointly by local MLO Madina and GIZ Project 'Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in GBAO' in order to suit thermal insulation

  • organización internacional

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

  • Suppliers of doors, windows and construction materials, workers
3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación interactivo Household members take part in public meetings and awareness raising workshops
planificación interactivo Household members jointly with technical and financial specialists prepare a work plan for implementing the insulation works
implementación pasivo
monitoreo y evaluación interactivo The users and specialists assess the efficiency of the micro loan and its procedures
Research ninguno

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • solo por especialistas MST
Explique:

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by SLM specialists alone (top-down)

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
  • personal de campo/ consejeros
  • Craftsmen
Forma de capacitación:
  • áreas de demostración
  • reuniones públicas
  • cursos
Temas avanzados:

Awareness raising among the local population on the reasons for, and the effects of bad insulation of houses. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal insulation. Information on existing funding opportunities for thermal insulation. Training of local craftsmen on thermal insulation technologies, and the production of quality and well-insulated doors and windows.

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

No

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • no

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?

Comentarios:

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

economic / production aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by land users through observations; indicators: None

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

technical aspects were regular monitored by land users through observations; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were None monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Initially the micro loan was provided in cash directly to the households, but the results of monitoring showed that not the full amount of the loan was used for thermal insulation purposes. Therefore the MLO decided to allocate the loan for thermal insulation in kind; in the form of products and services, which proved to be more efficient.

There were few changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Following ongoing discussions with craftsman and construction workers a follow-up seminar was conducted, where problems and possible changes were discussed in order to improve the quality of thermal insulation products. E.g. the roof hatch window had an opening, but it was not possible to open it from inside the room. As consequence every subsequent roof hatch window will have a lever connected to a string in order to open the window more easily.

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?

No

5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • 2,000-10,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: local community / land user(s) (Micro loan borrower pays for insulation materials, construction, installation): 90.0%; private sector (MLO Madina offers technical and financial consultancy free of charge): 1.5%; international (GIZ grant for allocating micro loans ): 3.5%; other (Transportation ): 5.0%

5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

No

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • construcción
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
doors, windows, insulation materials repayable loans.
Comentarios:

The micro loan fully covers the costs for purchasing doors, windows and insulation material as well as the installation. The transportation costs for delivering the products is paid separately in cash by the client.

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?

Especifique las condiciones (tasa de interés el apoyo, amortización, etc.):

Interest rate charged: 30.0%; repayment conditions: Repayment should be completed within 12 months, with 1 month grace period allowed. This equates to a 2.5% interest rate per month..

Interest was lower than market rate.

Especifique los destinatarios del crédito :

Individual households receive credit to implement house thermal insulation

5.5 Otros incentivos o instrumentos

¿Se usaron otros incentivos o instrumentos para promover la implementación de Tecnologías MST?

No

6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Micro loans were given so people could afford to thermally insulate their houses, which reduces fire wood consumption and thus contributes to the preservation and improvement of natural vegetation.

¿El Enfoque empoderó a grupos en desventaja social y económica?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Households save time and money on fuel, and can use this money for other purposes.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Following MLO Madina, other MLOs in Tajikistan started to include “Micro loans for thermal insulation” into their portfolio. One is MLO Ishkashim in GBAO, a second one is MLO Haqiq in the Baljuvon District of the Khatlon Region.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The household living conditions were improved as they now live in warmer and more comfortable houses with reduced health risks

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • carga de trabajo reducida

Less time is spent on collecting fire wood

  • conciencia medioambiental

Fear to fully destroy the surrounding nature

  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

Well-insulated houses allow households to save money and live more comfortably

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?
Si respondió que sí, describa cómo:

Sustainability is guaranteed by incentives along the value chain and introduced market mechanisms

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Improved knowledge on thermal insulation and micro loans
Access to thermal insulation
Reduced costs for fuel consumption
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Less harm to the environment
There was control of the whole process to ensure efficiency
Improved living conditions
Financial source with low interest rate

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Some households still cannot afford the loan Search for donor funding to establish a separate loan for the most poor
Whether MLO can sustain the interest rates without support coming from grants The interests rates are still high, there could be a reduction in interest rate or the further payment holidays.
Costs for training and awareness raising Initial investments as MLO cannot finance these activities

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo
  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Micro loans for thermal insulation: A product documentation based on the experience of Tajik Gorno Badakhshan, Andre Fabian, Heike Volkmer, Christoph Wiedemann, 2010

URL:

http://www.naturalresources-centralasia.org/assets/files/2010-09-15_product_documentation_thermal_insulation_FINAL_rus.pdf

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