UNCCD

Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®) [Ouzbékistan]

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Entité concernée: Uzbekistan

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle: Non

État complet: 91%

Informations générales

Informations générales

Titre des bonnes pratiques:

Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®)

Pays:

Ouzbékistan

Entité concernée:

Uzbekistan

Droits de propriété intellectuelle

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle:

Non

Classification

Utilisation courante des terres sur le site

  • Cultures

Contribution aux mesures de la DDTS

  • Atténuation
  • Adaptation

Contribution aux objectifs stratégiques

  • Améliorer les conditions de vie des populations touchées
  • Améliorer les conditions des écosystèmes touchés

Liens avec les autres thèmes relatifs aux meilleures pratiques

  • Renforcement des capacités et sensibilisation
  • Suivi et évaluation/recherche de la gestion durable des terres et de la DDTS
  • Participation, collaboration et réseautage

Spécifications

Section 1. Contexte de la meilleure pratique : conditions du cadre (environnement naturel et humain)

Brève description de la meilleure pratique

The advantage of the raised-bed seeder is the simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizer with minimum soil disturbance into stubbles on directly shaped beds

Site

Kazakhstan (near Kyzlorda city), Kyrgyzstan (near Bishkek), Turkmenistan (near Dashoguz city) and Republic of Uzbekistan (Jizzak and Syrdarya region)|

Si le lieu a des limites clairement définies, spécifier son extension en hectare:

10 ha (research area)

Estimation de la population vivant sur le site:

Approx. 15000

Brève description de l’environnement naturel du site

The region has a continental climate with long hot summers and cold dry winters. Winter temperatures range between -3 °C and 20 °C, and summer temperatures range from 20 to 40 °C. Precipitation is received mainly during the winter season. Irrigated agriculture in the four countries is generally practiced in areas with an annual precipitation of less than 250 mm.|
Kazakhstan: marsh and meadow-marsh soils with various salt levels
Kyrgyzstan: meadow grey desert, heavy loamy, repeatedly saline
Turkmenistan: irrigated meadow soil with various salt levels
Uzbekistan: prolluvial-alluvial zones of the Hungry steppe
The topography of the irrigated areas of the project sites are characterized by flat slopes with slight inclination.

Conditions socio-économiques dominantes des personnes vivant sur ou à proximité du site

Kazakhstan site: ca. 3000 USD/year
Kyrgyzstan site: ca. 600 USD/year
Uzbekistan sites: ca. 600 USD/year
Turkmenistan site: ca. 2000 USD/year
(all based on official statistics of GDP)
Irrigated crop production (cotton, wheat, rice, others), livestock, remittances|
Irrigated crop production; leased land (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) and private ownership (Kyrgyzstan)|

Sur la base de quel critère/indicateur(s) (sans relation avec la stratégie) la pratique proposée et technologie correspondante ont-elles été considérées comme « meilleures »?

The use of the raised-bed seeding unit immediately reduces the need for mechanized activities in the field, seeding rates and thus production expenses. Furthermore, it is an excellent platform for diversification of the common cotton-wheat systems through intercropping, relay-cropping, and mixed farming aimed at integrating crop-livestock systems. Combined with laser-assisted land leveling, the raised-bed planting system can improve the productivity of high-value crops and reduces leaching and irrigation water equipments. Distributed to the participating countries, the raised-bed planters were used for several research activities including seed management, crop diversification and zero-tillage (conservation agriculture), a sustainable agricultural practice with potential to reduce soil erosion and salinization, and increase soil fertility. |

Section 2. Problèmes abordés (causes directes et indirectes) et objectifs de la meilleure pratique

Principaux problèmes abordés par la meilleure pratique

1. yield stabilized| crop productivity increased
2. production cost and risk reduced
3. food security by diversification option

Décrivez les principaux problèmes liés à la dégradation des terres abordés par la meilleure pratique

- water productivity can be increased
- soil fertility can be improved due to option of intercropping with legumes
- possibility of planting into residues can potentially decrease risk of erosion and salinization

Précisez les objectifs de la meilleure pratique

1. increase crop productivity and farm income
2. reduce water use
3. move from mono-cropping to cropping system diversification
4. possibility for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)

Section 3. Activités

Brève description des principales activités, par objectif

Goal3.
1. intercropping of cotton with legumes tested
2. intercropping of maize with legumes tested
3. possibility of seeding barley| wheat and other crops tested
Goal 2.
1. homogeneous furrow shaping improves uniform water distribution
2. improved crop growth and water application improves water productivity
Goal 1.
1. seeding rate reduced| germination rate improved| homogeneous stand| increased yield
2. reduced mechanized field activities reducing fuel and labor costs
Goal 4.
1. planting into standing stubble or left plant residues

Brève description et caractéristiques techniques de la technologie

The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®) in the frame of the SLMR project have the advantage that they can simultaneously seed, fertilize and shape the furrows for irrigation. The direct seeding unit allows for seeding different crops alongside, i.e. intercropping.|
The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®)

Section 4. Institutions/acteurs impliqués (collaboration, participation, rôle des parties prenantes)

Nom et adresse de l’institution développant la technologie


In the framework of the Sustainable Land Management Research Project, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) conducted research using this equipment developed by Dashmesh|ICARDA Regional office in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

La technologie a-t-elle été développée en partenariat ?

Oui

Dressez la liste des partenaires :

1. Kazakhstan: Soil and Agrochemistry Science Research Institute after U.U. Uspanov| Almaty; Rice Research Institute| Kyzlorda
2. Kyrgyzstan: Agricultural Research Institute| Bishkek
3. Uzbekistan: SANIIRI| Cotton Research Institute
4. Turkmenistan: National Institute of Deserts| Flora and Fauna

Précisez le cadre de promotion de la technologie

  • Initiative basée sur un programme/projet
  • Autre (précisez)
Précisez:

International initiative in collaboration with national research organizations and scientists

La participation des parties prenantes locales, y compris des OSC, a-t-elle été recherchée au cours du développement de la technologie ?

Oui

Dressez la liste des parties prenantes locales:

1. regional branches of the research institutes and their scientific staff
2. farmers collaborating with the research institutes

Précisez le rôle des parties prenantes ci-dessus dans la conception, l’introduction, l’utilisation et la maintenance de la technologie, le cas échéant.

- the staff of the regional branches of the research institutes implemented the activities, supervised and advised the farmers, and organized field days and visits for showing the work and use of the seeder
- experiments were farmer-managed trials, where the respective farmer worked, managed, observed, assessed crop production using the raised-bed seeder; he gave the most objective opinion, as well as critically assessed the constraints of the seeder

La population vivant sur ou à proximité du site a-t-elle été impliquée dans le développement de la technologie?

Oui

Analyses

Section 5. Contribution à l’impact

Décrivez les impacts sur site (les deux principaux impacts par catégorie)

1. possibility of using the seeder together with a laser leveler reduced water use by 25-30%
2. possibility of planting into standing stubble showed potential for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)
Socio-economic level (including cultural level):
1. production costs were reduced due to reduced mechanized activities; more than 200% net benefit increase
2. intercropping with legumes increased net benefit by 200%
1. irrigation water use reduced by 10%
2. other nature protection impact (e.g., erosion, salinization) could not be measured due to short period of the project
1.  enhanced germination up to 20%; reduced seed quantity by 40%; yield increased
2.  possible diversification of current cropping system by intercropping using legumes thus improving soil fertility, and food and feed provision

Décrivez les deux principaux impacts hors site (dans les environs)

3. other impacts beyond the implementation area could not be measured due to short period of the project
1. raised interest by farmers in the proximity of the experiments
2. raised interest by researchers to continue working with the seeder

Impact sur la biodiversité et le changement climatique

Décrivez:

- raised-bed seeder can be seen as water-wise technology that increases water productivity and has the potential to decrease soil salinity
- crop productivity and farm income increased (production costs decreased); and potential for diversification of the cropping system positively tested, all of which reduces vulnerability to climate change
- possibility of planting into standing stubble/left residues has potential for reducing water-related erosion, soil evaporation and thus salinization, and increases soil fertility, thus making the system more resilient

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée?

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée? :

Oui

Précisez:

The most important benefit and most convincing for the national scientists and farmers was the cost reduction due to the reduction of mechanized activities from 11 to 5. Turkmenistan reported reduced production costs of winter wheat of nearly 23%, and Uzbekistan of around 12%. Consequently, the net profit could be doubled. Intercropping maize or cotton with legumes increased the net benefit by 200%.
The production of a seeder in Uzbekistan costs up to about 6.5 million UZS. Depending on the depreciation assumptions and the number of ha to be seeded it could take up to 2-4 years to cover the investments. This payback period would increase in case the entire equipment is imported since in addition to the purchase price also the relatively high transport costs would need to be recovered.

Section 6. Adoption et caractère transposable

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites?

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites? :

Oui

Où?

Implementation area: raised-bed seeder is still actively used by the research institutions and respective farmers for research on other fields

Pouvez-vous identifier les trois principales conditions ayant favorisé la réussite de la meilleure pratique/technologie présentée?

1. reduced costs and mechanized activities attracted farmers
2. possibility of using the planter for conservation agriculture, intercropping, etc. interested researchers and farmers|

Réplication

Selon vous, la meilleure pratique/technologie proposée peut-elle reproduite, y compris avec un certain degré d’adaptation?

Oui

Si oui, à quel niveau?
  • Local
  • Sous-national
  • Sous-régional

Section 7. Leçons tirées

Liées aux ressources humaines

1. Support and development of extension-type structures for awareness-creation among producers and trainings
2. Encourage shift in research paradigms and agricultural thinking
3. Improve links between farmers| markets and service organizations

Liées aux aspects financiers

1. Import and/or development of machinery suitable for raised-bed seeding and implementing conservation agriculture essential for further spreading this practice
2. micro-finance system needed for farmers to purchase new equipment
3. Investing in the raised-bed seeder could be a suitable strategy for farmers with larger farms. Smaller-scale farms could either hire the planter from neighbors or group together. Alternatively| the MTP| WUA or extension services could rent such equipment to farmers

Liées aux aspects techniques

. Modifications needed as imported seeder is too heavy to use with local MTZ 80 tractors; and furrow openers are too weak for Central Asian soils

Modules