UNCCD

Grass Grid Sand Barrier-implemented jointly by governments and farmer households [Chine]

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Entité concernée: China

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle: Non

État complet: 94%

Informations générales

Informations générales

Titre des bonnes pratiques:

Grass Grid Sand Barrier-implemented jointly by governments and farmer households

Pays:

Chine

Entité concernée:

China

Droits de propriété intellectuelle

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle:

Non

Classification

Utilisation courante des terres sur le site

  • Cultures
  • Pâturages
  • Terres improductives

Contribution aux mesures de la DDTS

  • Prévention
  • Atténuation
  • Réhabilitation

Contribution aux objectifs stratégiques

  • Améliorer les conditions de vie des populations touchées
  • Améliorer les conditions des écosystèmes touchés
  • Générer des bénéfices à l’échelle mondiale grâce à une mise en œuvre efficace de la Convention

Liens avec les autres thèmes relatifs aux meilleures pratiques

  • Renforcement des capacités et sensibilisation
  • Mobilisation des financements et des ressources
  • Participation, collaboration et réseautage

Spécifications

Section 1. Contexte de la meilleure pratique : conditions du cadre (environnement naturel et humain)

Brève description de la meilleure pratique

Under unified organization of local government, farmers and herdsman set grid or row barriers made up of wheat straw or maize stalks in movable sandlot in spring or autumn. Upon completion of the barrier, shrub trees and grass are planted in the grid for re-vegetation. Entry of outsiders and livestock to the project site are banned. The enclosure may be relieved in June to October to allow pasturing according to vegetation restoration condition. Three years after barrier constructed, the planted materials may perish into manure and vegetation is formed and plays a good sand fixation effect.
Central government and local government provide financial subsidies for the activities; farmers participate in the projects process and are subsidized for labor input in establishing, maintenance and management of the land.

Site

Naiman Banner, Inner Mongolia|

Si le lieu a des limites clairement définies, spécifier son extension en hectare:

81200.0

Estimation de la population vivant sur le site:

376000.0

Brève description de l’environnement naturel du site

soil suffers severe desertification,
Soil fertility: very low
Soil texture: coarse sandy
Surface stoniness:  low
Topsoil organic matter: low (<1%)
Soil drainage: good
Soil erodibility: high
Soil depth: 0-20cm
Gentle hill, Sand dune
Hill slopes to foot slopes with slope degree from 2-5|
Annual mean temperature: 6.4 degree centigrade,
Annual mean precipitation: 362mm
Growing season: 150 days in succession, from April to September|

Conditions socio-économiques dominantes des personnes vivant sur ou à proximité du site

annual average rural income 3492 CNY per capita in 2007
cropping, grazing and off-farm income|
Land ownership:State or collective, Land tenure: state or collective|

Sur la base de quel critère/indicateur(s) (sans relation avec la stratégie) la pratique proposée et technologie correspondante ont-elles été considérées comme « meilleures »?


Ecological effectiveness: Quick and effective in fixation of the big shifting sand dunes.
Partnership building for ecological improvement: Governmental input from both central and local shares financial resources burden of local in ecological improvement, divided ecological improvement responsibilities to all possible benificeries both local and large public beyond.  
low cost of farmer, free labour input and adequete barrier material such as wheat straw, maize stalk.

Section 2. Problèmes abordés (causes directes et indirectes) et objectifs de la meilleure pratique

Principaux problèmes abordés par la meilleure pratique

- Serious land sandification and pasture degradation on-going;
- Sand dune encroachment to farmland, pasture, traffics and houses and emergence of ecological refugees
-farmers’ technical knowledge of installing sand barrier is insufficient;
- inadequate financial support for ecological impovement;

Décrivez les principaux problèmes liés à la dégradation des terres abordés par la meilleure pratique

Drifting sand dune development, sandy desertification, wind erosion of grazing and cropping, |

Précisez les objectifs de la meilleure pratique

- restrain dune movement and improve ecological quality;
- form steady project financing source;
- raise awareness of communities in the field of ecological protection;
- Raise the capability of community in sand control and prevention

Section 3. Activités

Brève description des principales activités, par objectif

1)Meeting with farmers to locate proje餐厅 site and mobilize local participation;
2)Project design and training farmers by forestry bureau
3)Building barriers  
4) Maintenance and protection
5) Research by the work station of forestry on the effectiveness of the barriers to improve the technique
- Raise the capability of community in sand control and prevention
Training and field technical guidance
-form steady project financing source;
Setting cost sharing system: 73% from Banner government, 20% from central government input through Three-North Shelterbelt Programme (Phase IV)to cover cost of seedlings, straws, transportation and maintenance, 7% provided by land users in kind of labour. |
- raise awareness of communities in the field of ecological protection;
Farmers meeting organized by the township government Training for local farmers by forest bureau

Brève description et caractéristiques techniques de la technologie

The technical steps encompass: 1) set grid or row barriers made up of wheat straw or maize stalks in movable sandlot in spring or autumn.  Linear barrier should be configured perpendicular to the wind direction in the sandlots where reciprocating wind or singular direction wind is prevailing; 2) upon completion of the barrier, plant trees and grass in the grid: yellow willow (Salix gordeivii) 0.3m×1.5m in spacing.  The cuttings should be prepared be-fore March and stored in sand, and planted immediately after being prepared in au-tumn.  The size of cuttings is at 40cm in length. Remove dry sand and dig a hole in a depth levelling with the surface, then cuttings are planted; and 3) due protection shall be conducted after barrier is set and trees are planted to ban the entry of outsiders and livestock.  Coppicing of the yellow willow is conducted five years later. The project site enclosure may be relieved in June thru October to allow pasturing according to vegetation restoration condition. |
Grid barrier suit large area of movable dunes with uncertain wind directions with  the size in 1.5x1.5m grid and 20cm outcropping above ground. Yellow willow (Salix gordeivii) 0.3m×1.5m in spacing

Section 4. Institutions/acteurs impliqués (collaboration, participation, rôle des parties prenantes)

Nom et adresse de l’institution développant la technologie


The techniques have been widely used for several decades in various forms.
It is invented by the Shapotou Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Science.
The case in Naiman banner is compiled by Mr. LI Chunying and Tian Lu, Forestry Department of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
|No 23, Xinjian Dong str. Huhot city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

La technologie a-t-elle été développée en partenariat ?

Oui

Dressez la liste des partenaires :

Central government key program, local county government, forestry bureau, township government and local farmers|

Précisez le cadre de promotion de la technologie

  • Initiative locale
  • Initiative nationale – gouvernementale
  • Initiative basée sur un programme/projet

La participation des parties prenantes locales, y compris des OSC, a-t-elle été recherchée au cours du développement de la technologie ?

Oui

Dressez la liste des parties prenantes locales:

Forestry Bureau
Local forestry service stattion,
village Committee,
Farmers|

Précisez le rôle des parties prenantes ci-dessus dans la conception, l’introduction, l’utilisation et la maintenance de la technologie, le cas échéant.

Forestry Bureau: Planning, designing and formulation operation manual, technical Training for farmers,
Forestry Service Station: Field technical guidance, specific study on effectiveness of the barrier and its improvement
Township government and village committee: mobilizing farmers participation and organizing implementation, consulting farmers for project site selection, barrier establishment and maintenance
Farmers: participation in planning and design of the implementation, labor input, maintenance and follow-up sustainable use of shrubs.

La population vivant sur ou à proximité du site a-t-elle été impliquée dans le développement de la technologie?

Oui

Par quels moyens?
  • Consultation
  • Approches participatives

Analyses

Section 5. Contribution à l’impact

Décrivez les impacts sur site (les deux principaux impacts par catégorie)

Has increased farmers awareness of and participation in local ecological improvement.
Sand dune fixation locks encroachment of drafting sand to grassland and helps restoration of vegetation.
In crease of vegetation provide habitats for wild brids, insects and rodent animals. Biodiversity is improved. |
It has reduced wind erosion and dust particles in air, improved ecological condition.|
Local farmers get payment for saling of straw and maintainance of the project area.
Restored  vegetation coverage has increased bio-carbon stored in shrubs and grass  and made contribution to green house gas emission reduction.
has improved vegetation provides good basis for livestock devlopment.
has improved ecological condition enable a steady farming condition and better living condition of local residents.

Décrivez les deux principaux impacts hors site (dans les environs)

Fixation of sand reduce physical contribution to dust and sand storm affecting northern China and beyond.
Provide stop stone for migratory birds.

Impact sur la biodiversité et le changement climatique

Décrivez:

Increase of the biomess of vegetation increases carbon storage in plants above ground and under the ground.
Reduced wind erosion reduces the soil organic carbon loss in process of land degradation
The restored vegentation provide habitat for wild animals and plants.

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée?

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée? :

Oui

Précisez:

Analysis according to the land users:
It is a quik, effective  and low cost technique to fix sand dune and restore vegetation with central and local goovernmental input.

Section 6. Adoption et caractère transposable

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites?

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites? :

Oui

Où?

Ningxia and Inner Mongolian

Des mesures d’incitation ont-elles été mises en place pour faciliter le lancement de la technologie?

Des mesures d’incitation ont-elles été mises en place pour faciliter le lancement de la technologie?

Oui

Précisez le type de mesure d’incitation:
  • Mesures d’incitation financières (telles que des taux préférentiels, aide d’État, subventions, dons, prêts, etc.)
  • Incitations fiscales (telles que les exonérations ou réductions d’impôts, de taxes ou frais, etc.)

Pouvez-vous identifier les trois principales conditions ayant favorisé la réussite de la meilleure pratique/technologie présentée?

Barrier material is local produced and adequate. Weather is favorable to cuttings of Salix to generating roots.
Financial resources sharing among central,local governments and farmers and clear responsibility allocattion of forestry department and township government. |
Highly motivated local governments, farmers organized into well structured cooperatives|

Réplication

Selon vous, la meilleure pratique/technologie proposée peut-elle reproduite, y compris avec un certain degré d’adaptation?

Oui

Section 7. Leçons tirées

Liées aux ressources humaines

High labour intensity practices limited extention in less populated area. Introduce machanical method could facilitate dessemination.

Liées aux aspects financiers

No direct economic returns of the technology in short term, governmental input is the key for the parctices in place. In long term, revegetated land management could combined with sustainable pruning harvesting shrub twig and its processing.|

Liées aux aspects techniques

Quick, easy and high effectivness for sand fixation, combined with cuttings planting is even better.|

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