Afforestation of degraded lands [Roumanie]

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Entité concernée: Romania

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle: Non

État complet: 94%

Informations générales

Informations générales

Titre des bonnes pratiques:

Afforestation of degraded lands



Entité concernée:


Droits de propriété intellectuelle

Précisez si la technologie indiquée dans le modèle, ou une partie de cette technologie, est protégée par des droits de propriété intellectuelle:



Utilisation courante des terres sur le site

  • Pâturages
  • Terres improductives

Contribution aux mesures de la DDTS

  • Réhabilitation

Contribution aux objectifs stratégiques

  • Améliorer les conditions des écosystèmes touchés
  • Générer des bénéfices à l’échelle mondiale grâce à une mise en œuvre efficace de la Convention

Liens avec les autres thèmes relatifs aux meilleures pratiques

  • Mobilisation des financements et des ressources
  • Participation, collaboration et réseautage


Section 1. Contexte de la meilleure pratique : conditions du cadre (environnement naturel et humain)

Brève description de la meilleure pratique

Identification and approval of degraded lands that are subject to afforestation is made by a local committee, involving all relevant stakeholders. Financing of expenditures for feasability studies/technical projects and afforestation works is made from the National Fund for Land Reclamation and/or from specially earmarked budgetary allocations. The local forestry agencies (inspectorates) are in charge with the procedure of procurement of public works and the verification of financing claims. The plantations are established in accordance with the applicable forestry norms (i.e., Norms for afforestation of degraded lands, Ministry of Waters, Forest and Environmental Protection, 2000), following, as far as practicable, the natural type of forest. After the acknowledgment of plantation success (i.e., 5 years from establishment), afforested areas are assigned forest land use category, and are suubject to forest management plans and the forestry regime.
This is the programme on which basis, in the years 2005-2006, more than 5,000 ha of degraded lands were afforested yearly. The price of afforestation (including plantation maintenance) is up to 5,000 euro/ha.
The ammount of funding and the corresponding afforested areas decreased seriously in 2008-2009 (ca. 2.500 ha in 2008, 1,000 ha in 2009), in line with the economic recession. However, this is expected to increase significantly from 2010 on, due to the launching of two new afforestation programmes: Measure 221 NPRD 2007-2013 and the afforestation measure financed from the Environment Special Fund.
The afforested areas also count for the Afforestation/Reforestation (AR) activities reported under KP-LULUCF. |


Romania, "perimeters for land reclamation"|

Si le lieu a des limites clairement définies, spécifier son extension en hectare:


Brève description de l’environnement naturel du site

Even though the altitude is usually low (plains or foothills), the slope is usually high, favouring soil erosion generated by unsustainable use practices (e.g., overgrazing, unsuitable ploughing). Most often, degraded lands assigned for afforestation are former forests, which suffered, during the last centuries, chqnge in land use category from forest to agriculture. |
Areas affected by afforestation works on degraded lands are characterised by warm-temperate climate, low-elevated, with significvant water deficit in the summer (arid) |
The layer of fertile soil is usually shallow. Soils have high-clay activities, are often destructured, compacted, and sustain a low vegetal production. Sometimes there is no vegetation on these degraded lands, even under favourable rainfall.|

Conditions socio-économiques dominantes des personnes vivant sur ou à proximité du site

Degraded lands eligible for financing through the national programme of afforestation (financed from the Budget and/or Land Reclamation Fund) are public lands belonging to central government (undertaken by the National Forest Administration) or communes/municipalities.
Afforestation of private degraded lands are supported, from 2010 on, by funding from two other programmes: 1. Measure 221 NRDP 2007-2013; 2. Afforestation measure supported by the National Environmental Fund.|
Rural communities in Romania are usually highly dependent on the agricultural production (crops and livestock). Rural communities whose lands are significanlty degraded degradation (e.g., erosion, salinization, etc.) are definitely in a less favourable position than communities succceeding to keep land productivity at high level.  |
Local public administration
Small enterprises, handicrafts, etc.|

Sur la base de quel critère/indicateur(s) (sans relation avec la stratégie) la pratique proposée et technologie correspondante ont-elles été considérées comme « meilleures »?

- characteristics of SLM technology and investment on the ground, directly related to DLDD mitigation;
- volume of works achieved during the last years;
- funding mobilized;
- expected results, of which some are already visible. |

Section 2. Problèmes abordés (causes directes et indirectes) et objectifs de la meilleure pratique

Principaux problèmes abordés par la meilleure pratique

- Rehabilitation of degraded lands, i.e., regaining the productivity of lands currently unsuitable for any use;
- Improvement of local environmental conditions, including the protection of water resource, agricultural crops, support for nutrient cycle, soil generation, etc.;
- C sequestration in wood and other forest pools (soil, litter, underground biomass), accounted under the Kyoto Protocol;
- On long-run, additional source of wood and income for the local population.|

Décrivez les principaux problèmes liés à la dégradation des terres abordés par la meilleure pratique

- regaining fertility by lands currently unuitable for other uses;
- improvement of soil structure and parameters (pH, humus content, clay activity, compactness, etc.);
- increase of vegetal production and local communities' income;
- response to the decreasing livestock in rural communities and consequent decrease of demand for fodder and grazzing land (i.e., land use adaptation).  |

Précisez les objectifs de la meilleure pratique

Afforestation of degraded lands, unsuitable for other uses, and their integration into the national forest area, through public support for territorial-administrative units (communes) and the National Forest Administration. |

Section 3. Activités

Brève description des principales activités, par objectif

- inclusion of land into "reclamation perimeter";
- financing request to the ministry;
- verification of claim;
- submission of tehnical documents;
- aproval;
- execution of works;
- reimbursement;
- control and financing of maintenance work;
- inclusion of the plantation in the national forest area

Brève description et caractéristiques techniques de la technologie

Plantations are made in spring or in autumn, following an appropriate preparation of the soil (usually on the plantation spot). Extensive ploughing and the use of lime ammendments and fertilizers are the exceptions, not the rule (C leakage/emissions from the AR project is therefore unlikely). Seedlings used are usually 2-3 years old, belong to the natural forest type, have a density of at least 5,000/ha and follow closely the plantation scheme/formula provisioned by the forestry norms. These plantation usually occurs on degraded grazzing lands. Maintenance works (i.e., weeds removal) is made 1-2 times a year, until the plantation reaches the closed forest stage (5-7 years). The land reclamation perimeter is protected against game, livestock and other biotic/abiotic factors by fence and other means (i.e., repelant substances, guard). The greatest natural hazard, particularly during the first years, is the drought in summer. |
"Technical norms for afforestation of degraded lands", Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000. |

Section 4. Institutions/acteurs impliqués (collaboration, participation, rôle des parties prenantes)

Nom et adresse de l’institution développant la technologie

- Ministry of Environment and Forests
- National Forest Administration
- Institute of Forest Research and Management Planning|www.mmediu.ro

La technologie a-t-elle été développée en partenariat ?


Précisez le cadre de promotion de la technologie

  • Initiative nationale – gouvernementale

La participation des parties prenantes locales, y compris des OSC, a-t-elle été recherchée au cours du développement de la technologie ?


Dressez la liste des parties prenantes locales:

Afforestation are popular initiatives of the public at large, promoted at most during the "Forest Month" 15 March-15 April. The territorial branches of the Forestry Department and the National Forest Administration have key role in the promotion of afforestation programme .|

Précisez le rôle des parties prenantes ci-dessus dans la conception, l’introduction, l’utilisation et la maintenance de la technologie, le cas échéant.

- awareness on the role of forests and forest ecosystems;
- promotion of afforestation works during the "Forest Month";
- technical support for the implementation of afforestation projects.

La population vivant sur ou à proximité du site a-t-elle été impliquée dans le développement de la technologie?



Section 5. Contribution à l’impact

Décrivez les impacts sur site (les deux principaux impacts par catégorie)

Soil generation
Assisgnment of a given use category to a waste land
Increased vegetal production
Increased soil fertility, on long run|
Wood production, on long run|
Carbon sequestration
Landscape improvement
Water protection

Décrivez les deux principaux impacts hors site (dans les environs)

Shared benefits for the local communities: wood and non-wood forest products, working places, landscape, etc. |
Protection of downstream environment components (water sources, agricultural crops, etc.)|

Impact sur la biodiversité et le changement climatique


- Established plantation follow, on the rule, the natural type of forest existing originally on that piece of land. |
Carbon sequestration in all carbbon pools:
- above ground bbiomass;
- below ground biomass;
- dead organic matter;
- litter;
- soil.
This capacity of C sequestration of lands affected by afforestation activities has been reflected in the recently submitted KP-LULUCF reporting.
Biodiversity is better preserved (and in particular conditions enhanced) in forest, compared to wastelands (degraded lands with low vegetal production and biological activity)|

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée?

Une analyse coût-avantage a-t-elle été réalisée? :



Cost-benefit analysis is intrinsic part of the feasability studies, required by the national regulations on public procurement. |

Section 6. Adoption et caractère transposable

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites?

La technologie a-t-elle été diffusée/introduite sur d’autres sites? :




Des mesures d’incitation ont-elles été mises en place pour faciliter le lancement de la technologie?

Des mesures d’incitation ont-elles été mises en place pour faciliter le lancement de la technologie?


Précisez le type de mesure d’incitation:
  • Mesures d’incitation politique ou réglementaire (telles que les mesures liées aux réglementations et exigences du marché, import/export, investissement étranger, recherche & développent, etc.)
  • Mesures d’incitation financières (telles que des taux préférentiels, aide d’État, subventions, dons, prêts, etc.)

Pouvez-vous identifier les trois principales conditions ayant favorisé la réussite de la meilleure pratique/technologie présentée?

Availability of funding through the Special Fund on Land Reclamation and earmarked budgetary allocations, in the context of a steady economic growth, high profile of afforestation in the political debate and committed management at the level of the ministry responsible for forestry (particularly from 2005-2008)|
Positive feedbaack and support on behalf of the population at large and the relevant CSOs
Involvement of forestry specialists, expertise, and the use of forestry norms for the establishment of plantations |


Selon vous, la meilleure pratique/technologie proposée peut-elle reproduite, y compris avec un certain degré d’adaptation?


Section 7. Leçons tirées

Liées aux ressources humaines

- specialised unit within the ministry has been established;
- specialised inspectors within the subordinated forestry agencies are are now acquaited with the activity;
- specialised institutes for technical documents and specialised companies for afforestation works are readily available.

Liées aux aspects financiers

Funding from two distinct sources, used to be secured in the past, but is decreasing nowadays. This decrease in available funding in the last years is projected to increase from 2010 on, with the implementation of the Measure 221 NRDP 2007-2013 and the afforestation measure supported from the Special Environmental Fund. |

Liées aux aspects techniques

- the costliness of afforestation measures;
- the importance of sustainable land management;
- the bad past practice of extentind agricultural production preponderantly on the expense of forestry (instead of agricultural technnologies, such as the "green revolution" in the 1950's); |