Approches

Natural Resource Mangement Group [Bhoutan]

  • Création:
  • Mise à jour:
  • Compilateur:
  • Rédacteur:
  • Examinateur:

Rangzhing Nitang Sunchop Tshogpa (Dzongkha)

approaches_2492 - Bhoutan

État complet: 86%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
MoA (MoA) - Bhoutan
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
National Soil Services Centre (National Soil Services Centre) - Bhoutan

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?

23/03/2011

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:

Oui

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

Natural Resource Management Group consisting of village representatives to advocate, plan and implement SLM activities at geog level

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

Aims / objectives: The Natural Resource Management (NRM) Group was formally established in Radhi geog in 2000 with representatives from all 20 chiogs of the geog. The main tasks of the group are to :1)mobilise local communities in rehabilitating and protecting natural resources from further degradation and 2) to support geog administration, RNR staff and other agencies in planning, implementing and monitoring sustainable natural resource management activities. Radhi geog in Trashigang Dzongkhag, East-Bhutan, has been confronted with severe land degradation as a result of unsustainable land management practices, such as deforestation, overgrazing and poor irrigation water management. The land degradation processes are related to high population pressure and a series of conflicts between chiogs and with neighbouring geogs about use and access to natural resources. Various stakeholders, engaged with reduction and mitigation of land degradation in Radhi, felt the need for a local institution, which should play a pivotal role in advocacy of sustainable management of natural resources. The group was also intended to assist in implementing remedial and preventive measures at village level.



Methods: The NRM group fulfilled a key role in the afforestation program for the Radhi wa-tershed, in particular the very active Chongdiri ravine, which has caused wide-spread loss of arable land and forced resettlement of households, because of a very active landslide area. The chiog representatives, united in the NRM group, mobilized villagers to actively participate in the afforestation and fencing of the buffer zone. This zone was created to arrest the critical land degradation and change unsustainable land management practices, such as free grazing cattle and irrigated paddy cultivation in an active mass movement area.

Seed money was provided to establish a group fund to provide small-scale loans to households for agricultural inputs in order to overcome existing credit access constraints. The intention was to enhance the viability and sustainability of the NRM Group.

Stages of implementation: Over the last 5 years approximately 250 loans have been disbursed of about US$60 each. The NRM group has a loose umbrella function at geog level over a number of sub-groups at chiog level, related to private forestry, community forestry, bamboo and rice marketing, water user associations and land man-agement. The present group structure needs to be reviewed to adapt to the large number of emerging sub-groups.

2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée

Pays:

Bhoutan

Autres spécifications du lieu :

Trashigang Dzongkhag, Radhi geog

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:

2000

Date (année) de fin de l'Approche (si l'Approche n'est plus appliquée):

2012

2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (cash-income generation, NRM fund for SLM loans/credit facility)

- The main tasks of the group are to: 1) mobilise local communities in rehabilitating and protecting natural resources from further degradation and 2) to support municipality administration, RNR staff and other agencies in planning, implementing and monitoring sustainable natural resource management activities. A series of government programmes and projects initi-ated activities in Radhi geog and it was decided to create a local institution focused at building capacity in NR management, awareness raising and sensitization.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: - Widespread severe land degradation in densely populated area, related to forest degradation, overgrazing, poor irrigation water management, unfavourable geological conditions and NR management conflicts between chiogs and between geogs

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

normes et valeurs sociales/ culturelles/ religieuses
  • entrave

Conflicts between geogs (Radhi and Merak) over grazing rights and access, combined with conflicts between chiogs within Radhi over land and water use rights, all contributing to serious land degradation issues in Radhigeog

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Group meetings with chiog representatives; conflict mitigation workshops; formal conflict mitigation and eventually even formal judicial court cases; group formation and support to mitigate land degradation issues and come to consensus

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

Limited access to agricultural credit facilities

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Establishment of a local NRM group fund

cadre juridique (régime foncier, droits d'utilisation des terres et de l'eau)
  • favorise

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights moderately helped the approach implementation: Widespread land tenure facilitates participation level of land users in NRM/SLM activities. Government owned forests have partly been converted to Community Forests, now owned and managed by the local communities. Traditional grazing rights however, have created serious long-lasting inter-geog conflicts that have proved to be difficult to resolve, despite many mediation and judicial efforts.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

NRM group and chiog tshogpas

NRM group is completely male which reflects a local cultural dominance in administrative functions. NRM group provides active support to disadvantaged groups through the NRM group fund, providing access to credit (short-term loans) to enable purchase of seeds/seedlings and other agricultural investments.

  • Spécialistes de la GDT/ conseillers agricoles
  • gouvernement national (planificateurs, décideurs)

RNR-RC Whengkhar

  • organisation internationale
3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation interactive Group formation process guided and supported by RNR Research Centres
planification interactive Since 2006 through participatory SLM action planning in all 20 Radhi villages with support of NRM group representatives
mise en œuvre interactive Group members are actively involved with range of NRM/SLM activities, ranging from irrigation channel renovation, orchard development to bamboo plantation, afforestation and buffer zone creation
suivi/ évaluation interactive Combined effort of RNR extension staff, geog administration and NRM group members through participatory M&E meetings to get feedback from villagers and provide a platform for technical guidance to the communities
Research interactive Initial phase from 2000 to 2006 RNR Research Centres were actively involved in group formation process and capacity building (e.g. bookkeeping training etc.)

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)

Description:

Organisation chart of the NRM group

Auteur:

Hans van Noord (Schoutenkamp 43 Heteren The Netherlands)

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • principalement les exploitants des terres soutenus par des spécialistes de la GDT
Expliquez:

Annual SLM Action Planning in all chiogs, supported by NRM group members at chiog level.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by land users supported by SLM specialists. Consultation process in context of annual SLM action planning and participatory M&E meetings.

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?

Oui

Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
  • personnels/ conseillers de terrain
Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
  • entre agriculteurs (d'exploitants à exploitants)
  • réunions publiques
  • cours
Formats de la formation:
  • study tours
Thèmes abordés:

NRM group members were actively involved in all NRM/SLM training activities at chiog level, but also took part in training courses aimed at improving their capabilities, such as bookkeeping and fund management. NRM group members took part in national and international study tours on SLM and watershed management and shared their experiences on group formation with other NRM groups. Extension staff received targeted training on NRM conflict management.

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?

Oui

Spécifiez si le service de conseils est fourni:
  • dans les champs des exploitants?
Décrivez/ commentez:

Name of method used for advisory service: Regular guidance and monitoring for the NRM group; Key elements: Fund management and bookkeeping, Key SLM interventions; Regular guidance and monitoring for the NRM group on group dynamics, group fund management, bookkeeping and training programmes on key SLM interventions.

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Good level of awareness and knwoledge of NRM/SLM, proven capacity to manage NRM group fund

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, beaucoup
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Précisez le type de soutien:
  • financier
  • renforcement des capacités/ formation
  • équipement
Donnez plus de détails:

Seed capital for the NRM fund was provided at the start of the NRM group and later provided by SLMP to enable fund growth and provision of more loans. Interest rate charged by the NRM group fund per loan is 12% per annum (to be repaid in one year, otherwise penalty of 3% applies), equal to market rate.

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :

Oui

Commentaires:

bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: Regular observations by project staff, group members and land users of stability of degraded areas (size, growth, state)

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: Regular observations by project staff, group members and land users of mortality rate of plantations, area of improved dryland, area of orchard development, state and progress of irrigation channel renovation

socio-cultural aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: Regular observations by project staff, group members and land users of inter-chiog and inter-geog conflicts and progress in conflict mitigation

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: Regular measurements by project staff, group members and land users in cash income increase and yield change

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through measurements; indicators: Regular measurement by project staff, group members and land users of area converted to SLM practice

area treated aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through measurements; indicators: Regular observations by project staff, group members and land users of households participating in NRM/SLM activities and making use of NRM group fund loans

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: Regular observations by project staff, group members and land users of performance of NRM group, amongst others in municipality council meetings for transparency

management of Approach aspects were monitored by project staff, land users through observations

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Changes were made to the NRM group composition and structure and the task and responsibilities with arrival of new government programmes and projects in the geog. By-laws were drafted and updated after involvement of SLMP project in 2006 and NRM group fund expanded, with additional seed money for the group fund.

There were no changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?

Oui

Spécifiez les thèmes:
  • sociologie
Donnez plus de détails et indiquez qui a mené ces recherches:

Research was actively involved in the initial stages of the NRM group establishment, with special attention to the conflicts between Radhi and Merakgeogs on grazing land (double grazing as result of winter grazing for semi-nomadic yak herders and summer grazing for cattle from lower altitudes, resulting in severe land degradation).

Research was carried out on-farm

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • 2 000-10 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international (Seed funding, SLMP contributions): 80.0%; local government (district, county, municipality, village etc) (local community and geog administration (including RNR extension staff)): 15.0%; local community / land user(s) (membership contributions): 5.0%

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?

Oui

5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

  • équipement
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
Office equipment entièrement financé
Si la main d'œuvre fournie par les exploitants des terres était un intrant substantiel, elle était:
  • volontaire
Commentaires:

Most of the labour was provided voluntary by group members and the related communities they represent. Especially the buffer zone creation around the severely degraded Chongdiri ravine and related afforestation and fencing activities required substantial labour inputs. Some other afforestation labour was partly subsidized.

The NRM group was supported with office equipment and computer/printer to enable proper administration and bookkeeping.

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?

Oui

Spécifiez les conditions (taux d'intérêts, remboursements, etc.):

Interest rate charged: 12.0%; repayment conditions: Within one year repayment, otherwise penalty with 3%.

Interest was equal to market rate.

Spécifiez les destinataires du crédit:

BDFC

6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Great improvement has been recorded over the last decade of NRM group involvement through improved vegetation cover (afforestation of “green belt”, buffer zone creation and afforestation), stabilization of degraded areas, improved irrigation water management, bamboo plantation and raised capacity of land users in SLM/NRM.

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les groupes socialement et économiquement défavorisés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

NRM group advocates inclusive approach and issues loans for agricultural inputs to vulnerable families that otherwise would have poor access to credit facilities.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les questions foncières et des droits d'utilisation qui entravent la mise en œuvre des Technologies?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Traditional grazing rights however, have created serious long-lasting inter-geog conflicts that have proved to be difficult to resolve, despite many mediation and judicial efforts.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

NRM group has become focal institution within the geog for any activity related to NRM/SLM and government institutions keenly collaborate with the group.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Stabilization of degraded areas and afforestation efforts have contributed to improved well-being and security; additionally cash-income generation has been markedly improved through a series of NRM/SLM activities (bamboo marketing, orchard development, vegetable production, irrigation channel improvement etc.).

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The overall advocacy and implementation support of the RNM group to NRM/SLM activities have enhanced the cash-generating opportunities of all households and this is facilitated by the access to the NRM group funds for loans for agricultural inputs, often a great constraint for the most vulnerable households.

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • paiements/ subventions
  • conscience environnementale

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • oui
Si oui, décrivez de quelle manière:

Determination of NRM group to continue is based on almost 10 years of experience and perceived benefits of the NRM group structure. The proven management capabilities of the NRM group fund are a mechanism to support NRM/SLM activities of local households and will facilitate the financial sustainability of the NRM group itself.

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Increased awareness of budgets related to SLM
Better dealing with community through specific trainings
Improved planning capacity
Better knwoledge of specific SLM interventions (how, where, what, when)
Exposure to study tours as NRM group member (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continued support to NRM group
idem
idem
idem
idem)
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Strengthened local institution focused on NRM/SLM eases advocacy, planning and implementation of field-level activities
Facilitates access to local credit through NRM group fund for agricultural inputs linked to NRM/SLM
Enhances sustainability of SLM activities and local capacity in the municipality after project period ends (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continued support to NRM group

Continued support to NRM group in group fund management/auditing/transparency
Continued support to NRM group)

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Lack of understanding by community members of role and objectives of NRM group and its members
Time-consuming for NRM group members, especially in peak agricultural season as many NRM/SLM activities need to be supported
Some difficulties in targeting vulnerable households (lack of understanding, feeling of enforcement/being compelled)
Better communication and support by municipality administration

Provide adequate support by local RNR extension team

Provide adequate support by local RNR extension team
Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Relation to many other village groups related to NRM/SLM need to be improved/simplified to create a more transparent structure
Review of representation of key sub-groups in NRM group

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain
  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres

Modules