Passive Solar House (PSH) [Afghanistan]

Garm Khana

technologies_1602 - Afghanistan

État complet: 78%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de la Technologie

Personne(s)-ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Déclaration sur la durabilité de la Technologie décrite

Est-ce que la Technologie décrite ici pose problème par rapport à la dégradation des terres, de telle sorte qu'elle ne peut pas être déclarée comme étant une technologie de gestion durable des terres?


2. Description de la Technologie de GDT

2.1 Courte description de la Technologie

Définition de la Technologie:

A clean energy technology for converting solar energy into heat for warming homes.

2.2 Description détaillée de la Technologie


Passive Solar House technology is documented by Sustainable Land Management Project/HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation with financial support of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.
Households in Bayman Centre experience very cold winters and meeting household energy needs for the Bamyan population is challenging. They mostly rely on unsustainable solutions such as burning manure or mountain shrubs. Shrub harvesting for firewood is a major cause of land degradation in the province. Fuel expenses also deplete the financial resources of an already impoverished population. Also, due to the intense cold, very few activities are possible during the winter. To overcome the challenges of heavy dependence on biomass for winter heating and to improve living conditions, many families in Bamyan Centre are adopting the passive solar technology for improving their living conditions, while reducing pressure on environment.
Passive solar technology captures sunlight in a room or building, and converts that energy into low-temperate heat. It provides an efficient mean of capturing the sun's energy, reducing the need for fuel wood and coal for heating.

(1)The passive solar house (PSH) technology has significant economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits. They are as follows:
(2)reducing the reliance on shrubs and other heating materials; saving expenditure on fuel (aprox.25,000 Afghani/year) and the time usually spent on harvesting bushes;
(3)provision of extra space in the house for washing/drying cloths, bathing, social activities, play and study area, space for vegetable crops for home consumption; savings due to this technology offset the high initial investment cost;
(4)improved health due to less exposure to cold;
(5)reduced pressure on environment. The technology contributes to re-greening of common lands or rangelands where fewer shrubs are collected (uprooted) for firewood.
PSH should have a Southern exposure to take maximum advantage of the sun for daylight and passive solar heating. Most of the houses in Bamyan have southern exposures. The PSH is generally used for 6 months (November to April).
Although the technology was introduced in Bamyan by GERES, an International Non-Governmental Organization, many families have replicated it without any external support.

The main purpose of Passive Solar House technology is to make use of the solar energy for heating homes. As a result, the need for shrubs and coal for home heating is reduced significantly. The technology contributes to re-greening of common lands or range lands on which shrubs are harvested (uprooted) for firewood. Barat Ali's family bought about 60 donkey loads of shrubs per year for winter heating purposes. They did not have to do that after this technology was implemented by the PSH owner. The technology also contributes to the well-being of all family members, especially of women, who can do their household chores, and children who often got sick due to cold exposure.

The PSH presented here was established in September 2013 before the onset of winter. A transparent plastic sheet, metal pipes, wires and ropes to hold the plastic are used for construction work. Metal pipes were purchased from Kabul by the owner.
The PSH measures 17 m in length, 5 m in width and about 4 m in height. However, the PSH may vary from one house to another. The factor to consider is that the PSH should have long area to capture maximum sunlight. The upper part is slopping (about 30% gradient) to drain the water and snow. Local semi-skilled labor and skilled mechanic for welding the pipes were employed for construction works.
Approximately 45,000 Afghani/790 USD was spent on the construction of this PSH. The owner made significant investment. He purchased the pipes and plastic contributing approximately 70% of the costs. Plastic sheets, which are available on the market in Bamyan, are not of very high quality and have to be replaced each year. If the used plastic sheet is not too damaged, it is placed on roofs to protect from snow water/rain seepage. Otherwise, it is simply thrown away, which is not an environment friendly practice.
According to the PSH owner, a possibility for improvement is to use good quality wooden frame instead of pipes so that the plastic sheet can be kept intact by nailing it to the wooden frame. Using wooden frames may also reduce the cost of the technology, making it more affordable for poor families. Provision for ventilation is an aspect which needs to be considered while constructing PSH.

Bamyan province is a remote province of Afghanistan with high poverty rate. It has a temperate and arid climate. During winter, temperatures can drop below minus 22 degrees. Summer temperature can reach up to 34 degrees in the month of July. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 230 mm and some years can be very dry.
90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods and off-farm activities are marginal.

2.3 Photos de la Technologie

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où la Technologie a été appliquée et qui sont couverts par cette évaluation



Région/ Etat/ Province:


Autres spécifications du lieu:

Bamyan Center / Dashte Esakhan

Spécifiez la diffusion de la Technologie:
  • répartie uniformément sur une zone
Si la Technologie est uniformément répartie sur une zone, précisez la superficie couverte (en km2):


S'il n'existe pas d'informations exactes sur la superficie, indiquez les limites approximatives de la zone couverte:
  • < 0,1 km2 (10 ha)

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.00027 km2.
The PSH and house areas are 85 and 270 square meter, respectively.

2.6 Date de mise en œuvre de la Technologie

Si l'année précise est inconnue, indiquez la date approximative: :
  • il y a moins de 10 ans (récemment)

2.7 Introduction de la Technologie

Spécifiez comment la Technologie a été introduite: :
  • par le biais de projets/ d'interventions extérieures
Commentaires (type de projet, etc.) :

The PSH owner saw the technology applied by others and replicated it without any external support. The technology has been promoted by GERES (an International NGO) in Bamyan.

3. Classification de la Technologie de GDT

3.1 Principal(aux) objectif(s) de la Technologie

  • créer un impact social positif

3.2 Type(s) actuel(s) d'utilisation des terres, là où la Technologie est appliquée

Implantations, infrastructures

Implantations, infrastructures

  • Energie: pipelines, lignes haute tension

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Degradation of common lands due to shrub harvesting for firewood and overgrazing by sheep and goats.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Land degradation due to uprooting of shrubs required for domestic purpose like heating homes during winter and cooking.
Constraints of Infrastructure (House): Lack of alternative energy resources. Heavy dependence on biomass for burning.

Longest growing period in days: 180, Longest growing period from month to month: April-September

3.5 Groupe de GDT auquel appartient la Technologie

  • technologies d'efficacité énergétique

3.6 Mesures de GDT constituant la Technologie

structures physiques

structures physiques

  • S11: Autres

Specification of other structural measures: Passive Solar House

3.7 Principaux types de dégradation des terres traités par la Technologie

dégradation biologique

dégradation biologique

  • Bc: réduction de la couverture végétale

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Shrubs for fuel wood), overgrazing (Mainly sheep and goats), governance / institutional (Specially relating to common lands), lack of alternative energy options
Secondary causes of degradation: droughts, population pressure

3.8 Prévention, réduction de la dégradation ou réhabilitation des terres dégradées

Spécifiez l'objectif de la Technologie au regard de la dégradation des terres:
  • prévenir la dégradation des terres
  • réduire la dégradation des terres

4. Spécifications techniques, activités, intrants et coûts de mise en œuvre

4.1 Dessin technique de la Technologie

Spécifications techniques (associées au dessin technique):

Technical specification of South facing Passive Solar House constructed by the house owner comprising white plastic sheet, pipes for framers, string tied outside to secure plastic. Entrance gates.
Location: Dashte Esakhan. Bamyan Centre
Date: 12.05.2014

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover
Structural measure: Passive Solar House
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 4
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 5
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 17
Construction material (other): Plastic sheet, metal pipes, wires


SLM Project, Helvetas, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Afghanistan

4.2 Informations générales sur le calcul des intrants et des coûts

autre/ monnaie nationale (précisez):


Indiquez le taux de change des USD en devise locale, le cas échéant (p.ex. 1 USD = 79.9 réal brésilien): 1 USD = :


4.3 Activités de mise en place/ d'établissement

Activité Calendrier des activités (saisonnier)
1. Purchase material from Kabul September 2013
2. Construction of PSH using 4 semi-skilled workers for 3 days and one skilled mechanic September 2013

4.4 Coûts et intrants nécessaires à la mise en place

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre labour ha 1,0 190,12 190,12 100,0
Equipements plastic ha 1,0 70,28 70,28 100,0
Equipements pipes ha 1,0 530,31 530,31 100,0
Coût total de mise en place de la Technologie 790,71
Coût total de mise en place de la Technologie en dollars américains (USD) 13,87

Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 Activités d'entretien/ récurrentes

Activité Calendrier/ fréquence
1. Maintainance - plastic sheet As required
2. Replacement of plastic sheet every year

4.6 Coûts et intrants nécessaires aux activités d'entretien/ récurrentes (par an)

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre labour ha 1,0 13,78 13,78 100,0
Equipements plastic ha 1,0 68,92 68,92 100,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie 82,7
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie en dollars américains (USD) 1,45

Machinery/ tools: Plastic Sheets, Pipes, Wires, Generator, Welding Machine
The prices in Afghani are for September 2013. The exchange rate which was used for the conversion of US$ to Afghani was 1 US$ = 57 Afghani.

4.7 Facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts

Décrivez les facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts :

Pipes is the most expensive part of this technology

5. Environnement naturel et humain

5.1 Climat

Précipitations annuelles
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1000 mm
  • 1001-1500 mm
  • 1501-2000 mm
  • 2001-3000 mm
  • 3001-4000 mm
  • > 4000 mm
Spécifications/ commentaires sur les précipitations:

Most rainfall in spring (April and May) and also there is snow.

Zone agro-climatique
  • semi-aride

Thermal climate class: temperate. Bamyan has cold winter (temperatures can fall up to -22 degree C) and temperate summer.

5.2 Topographie

Pentes moyennes:
  • plat (0-2 %)
  • faible (3-5%)
  • modéré (6-10%)
  • onduleux (11-15%)
  • vallonné (16-30%)
  • raide (31-60%)
  • très raide (>60%)
  • plateaux/ plaines
  • crêtes
  • flancs/ pentes de montagne
  • flancs/ pentes de colline
  • piémonts/ glacis (bas de pente)
  • fonds de vallée/bas-fonds
Zones altitudinales:
  • 0-100 m
  • 101-500 m
  • 501-1000 m
  • 1001-1500 m
  • 1501-2000 m
  • 2001-2500 m
  • 2501-3000 m
  • 3001-4000 m
  • > 4000 m

5.3 Sols

Profondeur moyenne du sol:
  • très superficiel (0-20 cm)
  • superficiel (21-50 cm)
  • modérément profond (51-80 cm)
  • profond (81-120 cm)
  • très profond (>120 cm)
Texture du sol (de la couche arable):
  • grossier/ léger (sablonneux)
Matière organique de la couche arable:
  • moyen (1-3%)

5.4 Disponibilité et qualité de l'eau

Profondeur estimée de l’eau dans le sol:

5-50 m

Disponibilité de l’eau de surface:

faible/ absente

Qualité de l’eau (non traitée):

eau potable

5.5 Biodiversité

Diversité des espèces:
  • faible

5.6 Caractéristiques des exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

Revenus hors exploitation:
  • 10-50% de tous les revenus
Niveau relatif de richesse:
  • moyen
Individus ou groupes:
  • individu/ ménage
  • femmes
  • hommes
Indiquez toute autre caractéristique pertinente des exploitants des terres:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: All the PSH construction work is done by men.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
100% of the land users are average wealthy.

5.7 Superficie moyenne des terres utilisées par les exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1 000 ha
  • 1 000-10 000 ha
  • > 10 000 ha
Cette superficie est-elle considérée comme de petite, moyenne ou grande dimension (en se référant au contexte local)?
  • petite dimension

5.8 Propriété foncière, droits d’utilisation des terres et de l'eau

Propriété foncière:
  • individu, avec titre de propriété
Droits d’utilisation des terres:
  • individuel
Droits d’utilisation de l’eau:
  • individuel

Well belongs to the house owner

5.9 Accès aux services et aux infrastructures

  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
assistance technique:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
emploi (par ex. hors exploitation):
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
routes et transports:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
eau potable et assainissement:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
services financiers:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne

6. Impacts et conclusions

6.1 Impacts sur site que la Technologie a montrés

Impacts socio-économiques


production d'énergie

en baisse
en augmentation
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

For winter season

Revenus et coûts

charge de travail

en augmentation
en baisse
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Time saved in shrubs collection, burning Bukharis stoves for house warming, going out for daily chores like drying clothes, etc...

Autres impacts socio-économiques

Reduced expense on fuel (wood and coal)

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Due to less consumption of coal and shrubs

Off-season vegetable production for self consumption

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Harvested 5 times during winter/spring

Energy saving (coal bags)

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Less use of coal for winter heating

Impacts socioculturels

sécurité alimentaire/ autosuffisance

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Due to increased fresh winter vegetable production. Cash saved can be used for buying food items.

situation sanitaire

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Women, men and children are less exposed to severe cold. Also consumption of vegetables grown in the PSH contributes to food diversity and health. PSH also protects chimney smoke from outside entering the house.

opportunités culturelles

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

PSH used for social meeting, children play and studies, washing/drying clothes, bathing etc.

connaissances sur la GDT/ dégradation des terres

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

In terms of reducing shrub cutting through alternative energy options. Others see and learn.

apaisement des conflits


contribution to human well-being

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

The technology has contributed to less expenditure on fuel, improved health and has created socio-cultural opportunities.

Impacts écologiques

Cycle de l'eau/ ruissellement

ruissellement de surface

en augmentation
en baisse
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

As PSH has sloping top without any proper outlet for concentrated runoff

Biodiversité: végétale, animale

diversité végétale

en baisse
en augmentation
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

As the family can grow certain vegetable crops and flowers inside the PSH during winter time.

Réduction des risques de catastrophe et des risques climatiques

émissions de carbone et de gaz à effet de serre

en augmentation
en baisse
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Because of less burning of coal and shrubs

6.2 Impacts hors site que la Technologie a montrés

Increased vagetation cover

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Due to less extraction of shrubs for firewood for winter heating

Reduced soil erosion

Commentaires/ spécifiez:


6.3 Exposition et sensibilité de la Technologie aux changements progressifs et aux évènements extrêmes/catastrophes liés au climat (telles que perçues par les exploitants des terres)

Extrêmes climatiques (catastrophes)

Catastrophes météorologiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
tempête de vent locale pas bien

Autres conséquences liées au climat

Autres conséquences liées au climat
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
Intense sun light pas bien

Pipes should be replaced by wooden frames because they get heated up and can damage the plastic. Also, using wooden frames may reduce the cost.

6.4 Analyse coûts-bénéfices

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts de mise en place (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:

neutre / équilibrée

Rentabilité à long terme:

très positive

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts d'entretien récurrents (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:


Rentabilité à long terme:

très positive


The cost of the PSH can be covered in 2 years time. This is only in financial terms but if we analyse the overall economic benefits considering health and ecological benefits, the benefits compared with establishment costs will be more.

6.5 Adoption de la Technologie

De tous ceux qui ont adopté la Technologie, combien d'entre eux l'ont fait spontanément, à savoir sans recevoir aucune incitation matérielle, ou aucune rémunération? :
  • 91-100%

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
30 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités de la Technologie

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Multiple benefits for the family - less expense for fuel, children can play inside in warm climate. It is also a good space for social meetings.
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
PSH has multiple benefits: house warming using clean energy, less expenditure on fuel for winter, extra room for various activities (like studies, playing, washing, drying clothes, warming water, social meetings), less use of shrubs.
Due to PSH technology, families dependency on shrubs for firewood is reduced which leads to improved land management.
Convinced by the benefits of PSH technology, many families with financial resources have constructed it without seeking external support.

6.8 Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques de la Technologie et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Metal pipe is not good for frame because the plastic sheet cannot be nailed to it so that it does not get blown away by wind. Use of wooden frame.
Distance between pipes is more. More pipes needed to reduce that gap.
The air moisture can increase in the PSH as well as in the other parts of the house. The door and if possible the window of the PSH should be opened for some minutes during the day.
Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
PSH does not have proper ventilation. Construction of a ventilator.
The poor households cannot apply it due to high establishment cost. Use of low cost wooden frame and some incentives to the poor families for establishment.

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain
  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres
Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?