ອົງການ ສະຫະປະຊາຊາດ ໃນການຕ້ານ ການກາຍເປັນທະເລຊາຍ

Afforestation of degraded lands [ໂລມາເນຍ]

  • ​ການ​ສ້າງ:
  • ​ປັບ​ປູງ:
  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ
  • ບັນ​ນາ​ທິ​ການ
  • ຜູ້ທົບທວນຄືນ

ການລາຍງານກິດຈະການ: Romania

ການພັນລະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຫຼື ເປັນສ່ວນໜຶ່ງຂອງສິດທິ: ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 94%




Afforestation of degraded lands






ການພັນລະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຫຼື ເປັນສ່ວນໜຶ່ງຂອງສິດທິ:



ການນໍາໃຊ້ດິນໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ຕັ້ງສະເພາະ

  • ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດ
  • ດິນທີ່ບໍ່ສາມາດທໍາການຜະລິດໄດ້

ປະກອບສ່ວນເຂົ້າໃນມາດຕະການ ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນບັນຫາດິນເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ແລະ ແຫ້ງແລ້ງ (DLDD)

  • ການຟື້ນຟູ


  • ເພື່ອປັບປຸງ ສະພາບຂອງລະບົບນິເວດ ທີ່ຖືກກະທົບ
  • ເພື່ອສ້າງຜົນປະໂຫຍດ ລະດັບໂລກ ໂດຍຜ່ານການປະຕິບັດ ສິດທິພາບ ຂອງສົນທິສັນຍາ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຍງ ກັບການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ອື່ນໆທີ່ເຮັດໄດ້ດີ

  • ເງິນທຶນ ແລະ ຊັບພະຍາກອນ ການລະດົມທຶນ
  • ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ, ການຮ່ວມມື ແລະ ລະບົບເຄືອຂ່າຍ


ພາກທີ 1: ສະພາບການຂອງການປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ: ສະພາບການພາ (ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມທໍາມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ)

ອະທິບາຍຫຍໍ້ເນື້ອໃນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

Identification and approval of degraded lands that are subject to afforestation is made by a local committee, involving all relevant stakeholders. Financing of expenditures for feasability studies/technical projects and afforestation works is made from the National Fund for Land Reclamation and/or from specially earmarked budgetary allocations. The local forestry agencies (inspectorates) are in charge with the procedure of procurement of public works and the verification of financing claims. The plantations are established in accordance with the applicable forestry norms (i.e., Norms for afforestation of degraded lands, Ministry of Waters, Forest and Environmental Protection, 2000), following, as far as practicable, the natural type of forest. After the acknowledgment of plantation success (i.e., 5 years from establishment), afforested areas are assigned forest land use category, and are suubject to forest management plans and the forestry regime.
This is the programme on which basis, in the years 2005-2006, more than 5,000 ha of degraded lands were afforested yearly. The price of afforestation (including plantation maintenance) is up to 5,000 euro/ha.
The ammount of funding and the corresponding afforested areas decreased seriously in 2008-2009 (ca. 2.500 ha in 2008, 1,000 ha in 2009), in line with the economic recession. However, this is expected to increase significantly from 2010 on, due to the launching of two new afforestation programmes: Measure 221 NPRD 2007-2013 and the afforestation measure financed from the Environment Special Fund.
The afforested areas also count for the Afforestation/Reforestation (AR) activities reported under KP-LULUCF. |


Romania, "perimeters for land reclamation"|

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າສະຖານທີ່ໄດ້ກໍາໜົດໄວ້ຂອບເຂດຊາຍແດນ, ລະບຸການຂະຫຍາຍຂອງຕົນເປັນເຮັກຕາ:


ອະທິບາຍຫຍໍ້ ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມ ພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່

Even though the altitude is usually low (plains or foothills), the slope is usually high, favouring soil erosion generated by unsustainable use practices (e.g., overgrazing, unsuitable ploughing). Most often, degraded lands assigned for afforestation are former forests, which suffered, during the last centuries, chqnge in land use category from forest to agriculture. |
Areas affected by afforestation works on degraded lands are characterised by warm-temperate climate, low-elevated, with significvant water deficit in the summer (arid) |
The layer of fertile soil is usually shallow. Soils have high-clay activities, are often destructured, compacted, and sustain a low vegetal production. Sometimes there is no vegetation on these degraded lands, even under favourable rainfall.|

ສະພາວະທາງສັງຄົມ ແລະ ເສດຖະກິດ ຂອງຜູ້ຄົນທີ່ດໍາລົງຊີວິດ ໃນສະຖານທີ່ ແລະ / ຫຼືໃກ້ຄຽງ

Degraded lands eligible for financing through the national programme of afforestation (financed from the Budget and/or Land Reclamation Fund) are public lands belonging to central government (undertaken by the National Forest Administration) or communes/municipalities.
Afforestation of private degraded lands are supported, from 2010 on, by funding from two other programmes: 1. Measure 221 NRDP 2007-2013; 2. Afforestation measure supported by the National Environmental Fund.|
Rural communities in Romania are usually highly dependent on the agricultural production (crops and livestock). Rural communities whose lands are significanlty degraded degradation (e.g., erosion, salinization, etc.) are definitely in a less favourable position than communities succceeding to keep land productivity at high level.  |
Local public administration
Small enterprises, handicrafts, etc.|

ບົນພື້ນຖານປະເພດ ແລະ ຕົວຊີ້ວັດ (ຫຼາຍ) ອັນໃດ (ບໍ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຍຸດທະສາດ) ຊຶ່ງຈຸດປະສົງ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ໄດ້ຮັບການພິຈາລະນາ ວ່າເປັນການຈັດຕັ້ງທີ່ "ດີທີ່ສູດ"?

- characteristics of SLM technology and investment on the ground, directly related to DLDD mitigation;
- volume of works achieved during the last years;
- funding mobilized;
- expected results, of which some are already visible. |

ພາກທີ 2. ການບັນຫາການແກ້ໄຂ (ກົງ ແລະ ທາງອ້ອມສາເຫດ) ແລະ ຈຸດປະສົງຂອງການປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ


- Rehabilitation of degraded lands, i.e., regaining the productivity of lands currently unsuitable for any use;
- Improvement of local environmental conditions, including the protection of water resource, agricultural crops, support for nutrient cycle, soil generation, etc.;
- C sequestration in wood and other forest pools (soil, litter, underground biomass), accounted under the Kyoto Protocol;
- On long-run, additional source of wood and income for the local population.|

ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີແມ່ນແນ່ໃສ່ການແກ້ໃຂບັນຫາ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

- regaining fertility by lands currently unuitable for other uses;
- improvement of soil structure and parameters (pH, humus content, clay activity, compactness, etc.);
- increase of vegetal production and local communities' income;
- response to the decreasing livestock in rural communities and consequent decrease of demand for fodder and grazzing land (i.e., land use adaptation).  |

ແຈ້ງຈຸດປະສົງ ຂອງການປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

Afforestation of degraded lands, unsuitable for other uses, and their integration into the national forest area, through public support for territorial-administrative units (communes) and the National Forest Administration. |

ພາກທີ 3. ກິດຈະກໍາ

ລາຍລະອຽດຂອງກິດຈະກໍາຕົ້ນຕໍ, ໂດຍຈຸດປະສົງ

- inclusion of land into "reclamation perimeter";
- financing request to the ministry;
- verification of claim;
- submission of tehnical documents;
- aproval;
- execution of works;
- reimbursement;
- control and financing of maintenance work;
- inclusion of the plantation in the national forest area

ຄໍາອະທິບາຍສັ້ນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ກໍາໜົດ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

Plantations are made in spring or in autumn, following an appropriate preparation of the soil (usually on the plantation spot). Extensive ploughing and the use of lime ammendments and fertilizers are the exceptions, not the rule (C leakage/emissions from the AR project is therefore unlikely). Seedlings used are usually 2-3 years old, belong to the natural forest type, have a density of at least 5,000/ha and follow closely the plantation scheme/formula provisioned by the forestry norms. These plantation usually occurs on degraded grazzing lands. Maintenance works (i.e., weeds removal) is made 1-2 times a year, until the plantation reaches the closed forest stage (5-7 years). The land reclamation perimeter is protected against game, livestock and other biotic/abiotic factors by fence and other means (i.e., repelant substances, guard). The greatest natural hazard, particularly during the first years, is the drought in summer. |
"Technical norms for afforestation of degraded lands", Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000. |

ພາກທີ 4: ສະຖາບັນ / ພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ (ການຮ່ວມມື, ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ,​ ພາລະບົດບາດຂອງພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)

ຊື່ ແລະ ທີ່ຢູ່ຂອງສະຖາບັນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

- Ministry of Environment and Forests
- National Forest Administration
- Institute of Forest Research and Management Planning|www.mmediu.ro

ການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ມີການຮ່ວມມືບໍ່?


ລະບຸ ຂົງເຂດວຽກງານໃດ ທີ່ໄດ້ຮັບການສົ່ງເສີມໃຫ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • ການລິເລີ່ມແຫ່ງຊາດ - ລັດຖະບານ, ການນໍາພາ

ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ຂອງພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ, ປະກອບດ້ວຍ CSOs, ຜຸ້ທີ່ມີສ່ວນໃນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີບໍ່?



Afforestation are popular initiatives of the public at large, promoted at most during the "Forest Month" 15 March-15 April. The territorial branches of the Forestry Department and the National Forest Administration have key role in the promotion of afforestation programme .|

ສໍາລັບພາກສ່ວນກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ທີ່ລະບຸໄວ້ຂ້າງເທິງ, ລະບຸ ພາລະບົດບາດ ຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າໃນການອອກແບບ, ການແນະນໍາ, ການນໍາໃຊ້ ແລະ ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ, ຖ້າມີ.

- awareness on the role of forests and forest ecosystems;
- promotion of afforestation works during the "Forest Month";
- technical support for the implementation of afforestation projects.

ມີປະຊາກອນ ທີ່ອາໃສຢຸ່ໃນພື້ນທີ່ ແລະ ພື້ນທີ່ຢູ່ໃກ້ຄຽງ ໄດ້ເຂົ້າຮ່ວມ ໃນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີບໍ່?



ພາກທີ 5. ການປະກອບສ່ວນໃສ່ຜົນກະທົບ

ອະທິບາຍ ຜົນກະທົບ ທາງກົງຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ການຜະລິດ (2 ຜົນກະທົບຫຼັກໂດຍແບ່ງໝວດໝູ່)

Soil generation
Assisgnment of a given use category to a waste land
Increased vegetal production
Increased soil fertility, on long run|
Wood production, on long run|
Carbon sequestration
Landscape improvement
Water protection

ພັນລະນາ ຄວາມໝາຍ ຂອງຜົນກະທົບ ທາງອ້ອມ ທີ່ກະທົບໃສ່ນອກພື້ນທີ່ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ທີ່ບໍ່ປະກົດໃນພື້ນທີ່ ແຕ່ຢູ່ອ້ອມແອ້ມພື້ນທີ່)

Shared benefits for the local communities: wood and non-wood forest products, working places, landscape, etc. |
Protection of downstream environment components (water sources, agricultural crops, etc.)|

ຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ຊີວະນາໆພັນ ແລະ ສະພາບການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ


- Established plantation follow, on the rule, the natural type of forest existing originally on that piece of land. |
Carbon sequestration in all carbbon pools:
- above ground bbiomass;
- below ground biomass;
- dead organic matter;
- litter;
- soil.
This capacity of C sequestration of lands affected by afforestation activities has been reflected in the recently submitted KP-LULUCF reporting.
Biodiversity is better preserved (and in particular conditions enhanced) in forest, compared to wastelands (degraded lands with low vegetal production and biological activity)|





Cost-benefit analysis is intrinsic part of the feasability studies, required by the national regulations on public procurement. |

ພາກ 6 ການຮັບເອົາ ແລະ ການເຮັດຊໍ້າ

ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ເຜີຍແຜ່ / ການນໍາສະເໜີສະຖານທີ່ອື່ນໆ?

ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ເຜີຍແຜ່ / ການນໍາສະເໜີສະຖານທີ່ອື່ນໆ?




ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ມີການສະໜອງ ສີ່ງກະຕຸກຊຸກຍູ້ບໍ?

ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ມີການສະໜອງ ສີ່ງກະຕຸກຊຸກຍູ້ບໍ?


ການລະບຸ ປະເພດຂອງແຮງຈູງໃຈ:
  • ນະໂຍບາຍ ຫຼື ກົດລະບຽບ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບການຮຽກຮ້ອງຕ້ອງການຕະຫຼາດ ແລະ ກົດລະບຽບ, ການນໍາເຂົ້າ / ສົ່ງອອກ, ການລົງທຶນຕ່າງປະເທດ, ສະໜັບສະໜູນ ການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ ແລະ ພັດທະນາ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ)
  • ການສະໜັບສະໜູນ ທາງດ້ານການເງິນ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ການອ້າງອີງອັດຕາຕາມຄວາມເໝາະສົມ, ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອລ້າ ຈາກລັດຖະບານ, ກອງທຶນ, ເງິນກູ້)

ທ່ານສາມາດກໍານົດ 3 ເງື່ອນໄຂຫຼັກ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ປະສົບຜົນສໍາເລັດ ແລະ ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດໄດ້ດີບໍ?

Availability of funding through the Special Fund on Land Reclamation and earmarked budgetary allocations, in the context of a steady economic growth, high profile of afforestation in the political debate and committed management at the level of the ministry responsible for forestry (particularly from 2005-2008)|
Positive feedbaack and support on behalf of the population at large and the relevant CSOs
Involvement of forestry specialists, expertise, and the use of forestry norms for the establishment of plantations |


ໃນທັດສະນະມູມມອງຂອງທ່ານ, ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດເອົາໄປນໍາໃຊ້ໄດ້ຢູ່ພື້ນທີ່ອື່ນໆບໍ ເຖິງວ່າມີບາງລະດັບການປັບຕົວ?


ພາກທີ 7. ບົດຮຽນທີ່ຖອດຖອນໄດ້


- specialised unit within the ministry has been established;
- specialised inspectors within the subordinated forestry agencies are are now acquaited with the activity;
- specialised institutes for technical documents and specialised companies for afforestation works are readily available.


Funding from two distinct sources, used to be secured in the past, but is decreasing nowadays. This decrease in available funding in the last years is projected to increase from 2010 on, with the implementation of the Measure 221 NRDP 2007-2013 and the afforestation measure supported from the Special Environmental Fund. |


- the costliness of afforestation measures;
- the importance of sustainable land management;
- the bad past practice of extentind agricultural production preponderantly on the expense of forestry (instead of agricultural technnologies, such as the "green revolution" in the 1950's); |

ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

ຂະຫຍາຍທັງໝົດ ຍຸບທັງໝົດ