ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

Terraces with improved seed and fertilizer application [ອັຟການີດສະຖານ]

Palbandi bo tukhmihoi behbudyofta va kud

technologies_607 - ອັຟການີດສະຖານ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 86%

1. ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ

1.2 ຂໍ້ມູນ ການຕິດຕໍ່ພົວພັນ ຂອງບຸກຄົນທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ແລະ ສະຖາບັນ ທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນການປະເມີນເອກກະສານ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ບັນດາຜູ້ຕອບແບບສອບຖາມທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ()

ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:

Mohammad Azim Habibullah

Natural Resources Management Comittee (NRMC)

ອັຟການີດສະຖານ

ຜຸ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:
ຜຸ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:
Researcher:
ຊື່ໂຄງການ ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ/ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
ຊື່ໂຄງການ ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ/ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - ສະວິດເຊີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - ສະວິດເຊີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - ສະວິດເຊີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (HAFL) - ສະວິດເຊີແລນ

1.3 ເງື່ອນໄຂ ກ່ຽວກັບ ການນໍາໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນເອກະສານ ທີ່ສ້າງຂື້ນ ໂດຍຜ່ານ ອົງການພາບລວມຂອງໂລກ ທາງດ້ານແນວທາງ ແລະ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການອານຸລັກ ທໍາມະຊາດ (WOCAT)

ຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ແລະ ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ທີ່ໃຫ້ຂໍ້ມູນ (ຫຼາຍ) ຍິນຍອມ ຕາມເງື່ອນໄຂ ໃນການນຳໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນ ເພື່ອສ້າງເປັນເອກກະສານຂອງ WOCAT:

ແມ່ນ

1.4 ແຈ້ງການວ່າ ດ້ວຍຄວາມຍືນຍົງຂອງ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ດັ່ງກ່າວໄດ້ອະທິບາຍ ເຖິງບັນຫາ ກ່ຽວກັບ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນບໍ? ຖ້າບໍ່ດັ່ງນັ້ນ ມັນບໍ່ສາມາດ ຢັ້ງຢືນໄດ້ວ່າ ເປັນເຕັກໂນໂລຊີ ໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ? :

ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

SLM practices documented in the frame of the Rustaq NRM study were established only recently (1-3 years ago). It is too early for a final judgment on the sustainability of these technologies within the human and natural environment of Chokar watershed.

1.5 ແບບສອບຖາມທີ່ອ້າງອີງເຖີງແນວທາງ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ (ໄດ້ເຮັດເປັນເອກະສານທີ່ໃຊ້ WOCAT)

2. ການອະທິບາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

2.1 ຄໍາອະທິບາຍສັ້ນຂອງ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຄໍານິຍາມ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:

Terraces are established on mountain slopes used mainly for cropping wheat, with the purpose of soil protection from erosion, preserving runoff, sediments and nutrients on-site. Improved seeds and fertilizer are applied on the terraces for increasing crop yield, but also vegetation cover and biomass production, and thus prevent further land degradation.

2.2 ການອະທິບາຍ ລາຍລະອຽດ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການພັນລະນາ:

Project supported implementation of terraces with application of improved seeds and fertilizer has taken place in the villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai, located in Chokar watershed of Rustaq District in Northern Afghanistan. The Chokar watershed is a mountainous area situated between 600 - 2,500 m above sea level. The climate is semi-arid with harsh and cold weather in winter and hot and dry summers. The annual precipitation in average years is 580mm. Land degradation affects all forms of land use and includes low vegetation cover, heavy top soil erosion from water, and poor soil fertility. Unsustainable agricultural practices, over-exploitation and high pressure on the natural resources are adversely impacting on the socio-economic well-being of local communities as well as contributing to the risk for being adversely affected by drought as well as landslides and flash floods triggered by heavy rainfall.
The data used for the documentation of the technology is based on field research conducted in Chokar watershed, namely in the villages: Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai. These villages represent the upper, the middle and the lower zone of Chokar watershed, respectively. They differ considerably in access to services and infrastructure, but in general are poorly served. The communities depend mainly on land resources for sustaining their livelihoods. In a good year with high yields, wheat-self-sufficiency lasts about 5 months.
Since 2012 the Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland has initiated a range of NRM interventions. The project introduced terraces as sustainable land management practices on private plots, situated on rolling (11-15%) and hilly (16-30%) slopes to protect the land from soil erosion and prevent the loss of water and fertile topsoil, seeds and fertilizers. The average plot size for terrace implementation is 2 Jerib (0.4 hectares) with contour strips of 40m x 4m. The height of the risers is 1m-1,5 m. Terrace benches are built along the contour by moving the soil above the bench downwards. The leveled benches of the terrace are cultivated with wheat. The risers of the terrace are mostly used for growing fodder crops, mostly alfalfa, which also helps to stabilize the terrace. If medicinal herbs (ferula) are included they are cultivated along the bench contours .
Maintenance activities include small repair work on the riser by adding some amount of soil and re-sowing of alfalfa seeds on those spots.
The terraces allow application of improved seeds and fertilizers without them being washed off. The land-users report noticeable increase of wheat yield from the terraced plot with application of improved seeds and fertilizer compared to the non-terraced plot. An average plot of 0.2 ha on non-terraced hilly cropland used to give about 70 kg of wheat (350kg/ha). On terraces the yield has increased/ doubled to 140 kg on the same plot area (700kg/ha). The expectations regarding terraces remain high as over the time the land user hope their land will become more stable and improved soil moisture and fertility will have positive impact on the productivity as well. However, so far no cost-benefit assessment has been conducted allowing attribution of individual measure to the wheat increase.
Many land users are interested in the terrace technology due to a number of environmental and economic benefits expected, however the costs for building the terrace are considered high by an average local land user. They have to rely on external support in order to have sufficient resources for implementation. Women considered an advantage that during the establishment phase, men were paid by the project to work on their own land (or other villagers land) when building the terraces. Thus, there was no need for men to go for seasonal labour migration and they stayed at home.

2.3 ຮູບພາບຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

2.5 ປະເທດ / ເຂດ / ສະຖານທີ່ບ່ອນທີ່ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຮັບການນໍາໃຊ້ ແລະ ທີ່ຖືກປົກຄຸມດ້ວຍການປະເມີນຜົນ

ປະເທດ:

ອັຟການີດສະຖານ

ພາກພື້ນ / ລັດ / ແຂວງ:

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

ຂໍ້ມູນເພີ່ມເຕີມຂອງສະຖານທີ່:

Chokar Watershed: Sari Joy (upper watershed), Jawaz Khana (middle watershed), Dashti Mirzai (lower watershed)

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ການແຜ່ຂະຫຍາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ແຜ່ຂະຫຍາຍຢ່າງໄວວາໃນພື້ນທີ່
ຖ້າຫາກບໍ່ຮູ້ເນື້ອທີ່ທີ່ແນ່ນອນ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເນື້ອທີ່ໂດຍປະມານ ທີ່ໃກ້ຄຽງ:
  • 0.1-1 ກມ 2
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

This documentation is based on the experiences of SLM impementers from Sari Joy (8 terraced plots), Jawaz Khana, (7 terraced plots), and Dashti Mirzai (11 terraced plots) as compiled during FGDs. The terraces located in Jawaz Khana have not been digitized yet. Additionally insights were gained through interviews in all three villages on farmers experiences and observations of terraced plots, with both SLM implementers (46) and observers (28).

2.6 ວັນທີໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າ ບໍ່ຮູ້ຈັກ ປີທີ່ຊັດເຈນ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ປະມານ ວັນທີເອົາ:
  • ຕໍ່າກວ່າ 10 ປີ ຜ່ານມາ (ມາເຖິງປະຈຸບັນ)

2.7 ການນໍາສະເໜີ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດຄືແນວໃດ?
  • ໂດຍຜ່ານໂຄງການ / ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອຈາກພາຍນອກ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ (ປະເພດ ໂຄງການ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ):

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) supported by Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) from 2012-17

3. ການໃຈ້ແຍກ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

3.1 ຈຸດປະສົງຫຼັກ (ຫຼາຍ) ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • ປັບປຸງ ການຜະລິດ
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ, ປ້ອງກັນ, ຟື້ນຟູ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

3.2 ປະເພດການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃນປະຈຸບັນ() ທີ່ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກນໍາໃຊ້

ດິນທີ່ປູກພືດ

ດິນທີ່ປູກພືດ

  • ການປູກພືດປະຈໍາປີ
  • ພືດຢືນຕົ້ນ (ບໍ່ແມ່ນໄມ້)
  • Wheat, Alfalfa
ຈໍານວນ ລະດູການ ປູກໃນປີໜຶ່ງ:
  • 1
ລະບຸ ຊະນິດ:

May-July

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Before implementation of the Technology, only annual crops were cultivated, with wheat as the main crop. Plots were ploughed along the countours mostly by animal traction. In recent years land users are starting to use tractors for ploughing, , where villages and plots are accessible by machinery.

3.4 ການສະໜອງນ້ຳ

ການສະໜອງນໍ້າ ໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ນໍ້າຝົນ

3.5 ການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ຢູ່ໃນກຸ່ມການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

  • ມາດຕະການ ຕັດຂວາງ ກັບຄວາມຄ້ອຍຊັນ

3.6 ມາດຕະການ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ ປະກອບດ້ວຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງການກະສິກໍາ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງການກະສິກໍາ

  • A2: ອິນຊີວັດຖຸ ຫຼື ຄວາມອຸດົມສົມບູນໃນດິນ
ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານພືດພັນ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານພືດພັນ

  • V2: ຫຍ້າ ແລະ ພືດສະໝູນໄພທີ່ເປັນໄມ້ຢືນຕົ້ນ
ມາດຕະການໂຄງສ້າງ

ມາດຕະການໂຄງສ້າງ

  • S1: ພັກຄັນໃດ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Agronomic measures: Terraces increase the economic viability of applying improved seeds and (chemical) fertilizer to badly nutrient depleted cropland.
Vegetative measures: Alfalfa is planted on the risers for stabilizing the terraces, and as an important contribution to fodder cropping.
Structural measures: The leveling of countour strips allows to harvest water and sediments.

3.7 ປະເພດດິນເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຫຼັກທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ດິນເຊາະເຈື່ອນ ໂດຍນໍ້າ

ດິນເຊາະເຈື່ອນ ໂດຍນໍ້າ

  • Wt: ການສູນເສຍຊັ້ນໜ້າດິນ / ການເຊາະເຈື່ອນຜິວໜ້າດິນ
  • Wg: ການເຊາະເຈື່ອນຮ່ອງນ້ຳ / ຫ້ວຍ
  • Wo: ຜົນກະທົບ ຂອງການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ພາຍນອກ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

  • Pi: ເນື້ອດິນ ທີ່ມີຂະໜາດນ້ອຍຫຼາຍ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ທາງຊີວະພາບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ທາງຊີວະພາບ

  • Bc: ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນການປົກຫຸ້ມຂອງພືດ
  • Bq: ປະລິມານ / ອິນຊີວັດຖຸຫຼຸດລົງ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

3.8 ການປ້ອງກັນ, ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ, ຫຼືການຟື້ນຟູຂອງການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເປົ້າໝາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ພົວພັນ ກັບຄວາມເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ:
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ
  • ການຟື້ນຟູ / ຟື້ນຟູດິນທີ່ຊຸດໂຊມ

4. ຂໍ້ກໍາໜົດ, ກິດຈະກໍາການປະຕິບັດ, ວັດຖຸດິບ, ແລະຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

4.1 ເຕັກນິກ ໃນການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

Terraces are established predominantly on a privately owned land in a mountainous landscape with varying steepness of slopes.
The average size of a plot is 2 Jerib, which is equal to 0.4 ha. The design of the terrace depends on the steepness of the slope. Mostly rolling (11-15%) and hilly (16-30%) slopes are used for building terraces.
Using an A-frame, the terrace is designed by dividing the slope into contour strips. Depending on the slope steepness, the terrace bench is around 4m wide and the the height of the risers is 1m-1,5 m. The terrace benches are built along the contour by moving the soil of upper bench to the lower bench. The leveled benches of the terrace are cultivated with wheat. The risers of the terrace are mostly used for growing fodder crops, such as alfalfa, which also helps to stabilize the terrace. If medicinal herbs are included, such as ferula, they are cultivated along the bench contours.

ຜູ້ຂຽນ:

Aslam Qadamov

ວັນທີ:

14/02/2017

4.2 ຂໍ້ມູນທົ່ວໄປກ່ຽວກັບການຄິດໄລ່ປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າໃນການຜະລິດ ແລະ ມູນຄ່າອື່ນໆ

ລະບຸ ວິທີການ ຄຳໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ແລະ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າ ທີ່ໄດ້ຄິດໄລ່:
  • ຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຂະໜາດ ແລະ ເນື້ອທີ່:

1 ha

ລະບຸ ສະກຸນເງິນທີ່ໃຊ້ສໍາລັບ ການຄິດໄລ່ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ:
  • USA
ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸອັດຕາແລກປ່ຽນຈາກ USD ເປັນສະກຸນເງິນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ (ເຊັ່ນ: 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

67.0

ລະບຸ ຄ່າຈ້າງ ຄ່າແຮງງານສະເລ່ຍ ຕໍ່ ວັນ:

5.2-5.3 USD

4.3 ການສ້າງຕັ້ງກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ Timing (season)
1. Selection of the area for establishing a terrace (Men) Autumn
2. Designing of the terrace using A-frame, assisted by trained technician/project staff (Men) End of autumn after rainy days
3. Leveling the soil with a shovel (Men) Autumn/Winter
4. Sowing of alfalfa seeds on the risers (Men/women) After 20 days of sowing wheat
5. Sowing of wheat seeds on benches (Men/Women) Winter/Spring
6. Sowing of ferula along the contours (Men/women) Winter/Spring

4.4 ຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ປັດໄຈຂາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນໃນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ແຮງງານ Designing of the terrace using A-frame person-day 10.0 9.0 90.0
ແຮງງານ Leveling the soil with a shovel person-day 150.0 5.3 795.0 51.0
ແຮງງານ Sowing of wheat and alfalfa seeds person-day 10.0 5.3 53.0 51.0
ແຮງງານ Sowing of ferula person-day 2.0 5.3 10.6 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Pick axe Pcs 1.0 3.0 3.0 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Pitchfork Pcs 1.0 5.3 5.3 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Wheel barrow Pcs 1.0 38.0 38.0 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Shovel Pcs 1.0 3.8 3.8
ອຸປະກອນ Hoe Pcs 1.0 7.5 7.5
ອຸປະກອນ A-Frame Pcs 1.0 6.0 6.0
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Wheat seeds Kg 140.0 0.42 58.8
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Alfalfa seeds Kg 17.5 0.42 7.35 100.0
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Ferula seeds Kg 2.5 6.35 15.88 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ DAP Kg 125.0 0.9 112.5
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Urea Kg 125.0 0.45 56.25
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Herbicide Liter 50.0 0.25 12.5
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 1275.48
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 19.04
ຖ້າຫາກຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ນຳໃຊ້ມູນຄ່າຕ່ຳກວ່າ 100% ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ແມ່ນໃຜເປັນຜູ້ຊ່ວຍ ໃນລາຍຈ່າຍທີ່ເຫຼືອ:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des Hommes (Tdh)

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Equipment provided by the project was re-used for the implemenation of different SLM practices on different plots. For completness equipment costs are fully accounted for.
Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.4 ha or 2 jiribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 2.5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.5 ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ / ແຜນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ ໄລຍະເວລາ / ຄວາມຖີ່
1. Ploughing the land with animal traction (Men) Winter/Spring/Annually
2. Sowing of wheat seeds on benches (Men/Women) Winter/Spring/Annually
3. Application of fertilizer (Men/Women) Fall
4. Weeding (Women) Summer
5. Harvesting wheat (Men and women together) Summer/Fall
6. Harvesting alfalfa (Men and women together) Summer/Fall
7. Collecting and delivering harvested wheat (Men and women) Fall
8. Collecting and delivering harvested alfalfa (Men and women) Fall
9. Repairing terrace risers with a shovel (Men) Winter/Spring/After heavy rain or snow
10. Sowing alfalfa seeds on the repaired area (Men/Women) Winter/Spring/When required

4.6 ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ແລະ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນສໍາລັບການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາກິດຈະກໍາ / ແຜນປະຕິບັດ (ຕໍ່ປີ)

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ແຮງງານ Ploughing the land with animal traction person day 2.5 5.3 13.25 100.0
ແຮງງານ Sowing of wheat seeds on benches person day 5.0 5.3 26.5 100.0
ແຮງງານ Weeding and Fertilizer application person day 5.0 5.3 26.5 100.0
ແຮງງານ Harvesting and delivering wheat and alfalfa person day 70.0 5.3 371.0 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Sickle Pcs 1.0 100.0
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Wheat seeds Kg 140.0 0.42 58.8 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ DAP Kg 125.0 0.9 112.5 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Urea Kg 125.0 0.45 56.25 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Herbicide Liter 50.0 0.25 12.5 100.0
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ໃຊ້ໃນການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 677.3
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 10.11
ຖ້າຫາກຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ນຳໃຊ້ມູນຄ່າຕ່ຳກວ່າ 100% ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ແມ່ນໃຜເປັນຜູ້ຊ່ວຍ ໃນລາຍຈ່າຍທີ່ເຫຼືອ:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des Hommes (Tdh)

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.4 ha or 2 jiribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 2.5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.7 ປັດໄຈ ທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

ໃຫ້ອະທິບາຍ ປັດໃຈ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຕົ້ນທຶນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ:

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the Technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມທໍາມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ

5.1 ອາກາດ

ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນປະຈໍາປີ
  • < 250 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 251-500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 501-750 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 751-1,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,001-1,500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,501-2,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 2,001-3,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 3,001-4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • > 4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸສະເລ່ຍ ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນຕົກປະຈໍາປີ ເປັນມິນລິແມັດ (ຖ້າຫາກຮູ້ຈັກ):

580.00

ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ / ຄວາມເຫັນກ່ຽວກັບ ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນ:

Average annual precipitation for the area was calculated with 580 mm, with minimums in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximums in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolute maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 with 1024 mm. The data series covers the time from 1979 to 2014.

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ຊື່ສະຖານີ ອຸຕຸນິຍົມ ເພື່ອເປັນຂໍ້ມູນອ້າງອີງ:

Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), http://rda.ucar.edu/pub/cfsr.html

ເຂດສະພາບອາກາດກະສິກໍາ
  • ເຄິ່ງແຫ້ງແລ້ງ

Specifications: Derived from the publically available dataset on length of growing period (LGP) (Fischer 2009 / IIASA-FAO). Internet link: http://tiles.arcgis.com/tiles/P8Cok4qAP1sTVE59/arcgis/rest/services/Length_of_growing_period/MapServer

5.2 ພູມິປະເທດ

ຄ່າສະເລ່ຍ ຄວາມຄ້ອຍຊັນ:
  • ພື້ນທີ່ຮາບພຽງ (0-2%)
  • ອ່ອນ (3-5 %)
  • ປານກາງ (6-10 %)
  • ມ້ວນ (11-15 %)
  • ເນີນ(16-30%)
  • ໍຊັນ (31-60%)
  • ຊັນຫຼາຍ (>60%)
ຮູບແບບຂອງດິນ:
  • ພູພຽງ / ທົ່ງພຽງ
  • ສັນພູ
  • ເປີ້ນພູ
  • ເນີນພູ
  • ຕີນພູ
  • ຮ່ອມພູ
ເຂດລະດັບສູງ:
  • 0-100 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 101-500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
ຄຳເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ພູມີປະເທດ:

The information was derived from two different sources:
-SLM implementers information provided in the Land User Protocol (LUP) during an FGD
-Elevation and slope statistics derived for terraced plots from ASTGTM. ASTGTM is the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002 with a 30 m spatial resolution. More information on ASTGTM is available here: https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/node/1079. The data can be downloaded here: https://gdex.cr.usgs.gov/gdex/

5.3 ດິນ

ຄວາມເລິກ ຂອງດິນສະເລ່ຍ:
  • ຕື້ນຫຼາຍ (0-20 ຊັງຕີແມັດ)
  • ຕື້ນ (21-50 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລີກປານກາງ (51-80 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລິກ (81-120 ຊມ)
  • ເລິກຫຼາຍ (> 120 cm)
ເນື້ອດິນ (ໜ້າດິນ):
  • ປານກາງ (ດິນໜຽວ, ດິນໂຄນ)
ເນື້ອດິນ (ເລິກຈາກໜ້າດິນ ລົງໄປຫຼາຍກວ່າ 20 ຊັງຕິແມັດ):
  • ປານກາງ (ດິນໜຽວ, ດິນໂຄນ)
ຊັ້ນອິນຊີວັດຖຸ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:
  • ປານກາງ (1-3 %)
  • ຕໍາ່ (<1 %)
ຖ້າເປັນໄປໄດ້ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ຕິດຄັດ ການພັນລະນາດິນ ຫຼື ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະຂອງດິນ, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ປະເພດຂອງດິນ, ຄ່າຄວາມເປັນກົດ / ເປັນດ່າງຂອງດິນ, ສານອາຫານ,​ ດິນເຄັມ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ.

Local land users differentiate between the following soil types where terraces are implemented:
-Light soils: moderately deep; texture of topsoil medium (loamy, silty); low topsoil organic matter
-Dark soils: moderately deep; texture of topsoil medium (loamy, silty); medium topsoil organic matter

5.4 ມີນໍ້າ ແລະ ຄຸນນະພາບ

ການມີນໍ້າ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:

ປານກາງ

ຄຸນນະພາບນໍ້າ (ບໍ່ມີການບໍາບັດ):

ມີນໍ້າດື່ມ

ມີບັນຫາ ກ່ຽວກັບນໍ້າເຄັມບໍ່?

ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

ເກີດມີນໍ້າຖ້ວມ ໃນພື້ນທີ່ບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ເປັນປົກກະຕິ:

ຕອນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ກໍານົດ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ຄຸນນະພາບ ແລະ ປະລິມານ ຂອງນ້ຳ:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the three study villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, and Dashti Mirzai. Sari Joy has sources and good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a lower laying stream. Dashti Mirzai has good water availability also from an irrigation channel.

5.5 ຊີວະນາໆພັນ

ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງສາຍພັນ:
  • ຕໍ່າ
ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງດ້ານ ທີ່ຢູ່ອາໃສ ຂອງສິ່ງທີ່ມີຊີວິດ:
  • ຕໍ່າ

5.6 ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຢູ່ປະຈຳ ຫຼື ເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຕະຫຼອດ:
  • ບໍ່ເຄື່ອນໄຫວ
ລະບົບ ການຕະຫຼາດ ແລະ ຜົນຜະລິດ:
  • ກຸ້ມຕົນເອງ (ພໍພຽງ)
  • ປະສົມປົນເປ( ກຸ້ມຕົນເອງ/ເປັນສິນຄ້າ)
ລາຍຮັບ ທີ່ບໍ່ໄດ້ມາຈາກ ການຜະລິດ ກະສິກໍາ:
  • 10-50 % ຂອງລາຍຮັບທັງໝົດ
  • > 50 % ຂອງລາຍຮັບທັງໝົດ
ລະດັບຄວາມຮັ່ງມີ:
  • ສະເລ່ຍ
  • ຮັ່ງມີ
ບຸກຄົນ ຫຼື ກຸ່ມ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ / ຄົວເຮືອນ
ລະດັບ ການຫັນເປັນກົນຈັກ:
  • ການໃຊ້ແຮງງານຄົນ
  • ສັດລາກແກ່
ເພດ:
  • ຜູ້ຍິງ
  • ຜູ້ຊາຍ
ອາຍຸ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:
  • ໄວ​ກາງ​ຄົນ
  • ຜູ້ສູງອາຍຸ

5.7 ເນື້ອທີ່ສະເລ່ຍຂອງດິນ ທີ່ຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ເຮັດເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • <0.5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 0.5-1 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1-2 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 2-5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 5-15 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 15-50 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 50-100 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 100-500 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 500-1,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1,000-10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • > 10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
ຖືໄດ້ວ່າ ເປັນຂະໜາດນ້ອຍ, ກາງ ຫຼື ໃຫຍ່ (ອີງຕາມເງື່ອນໄຂ ສະພາບຄວາມເປັນຈິງ ຂອງທ້ອງຖີ່ນ)? :
  • ຂະໜາດກາງ

5.8 ເຈົ້າຂອງທີ່ດິນ, ສິດໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ, ແລະ ສິດທິການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ

ເຈົ້າຂອງດິນ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ, ບໍ່ມີຕໍາແໜ່ງ
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ:
  • ຊຸມຊົນ (ທີ່ມີການຈັດຕັ້ງ)
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for the water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob, the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

6. ຜົນກະທົບ ແລະ ລາຍງານສະຫຼຸບ

6.1 ການສະແດງຜົນກະທົບ ພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຜົນກະທົບທາງເສດຖະກິດສັງຄົມ

ການຜະລິດ

ການຜະລິດພືດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ປະລິມານ ກ່ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

350 kg / ha

ປະລີມານ ຫຼັງການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

700 kg / ha

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The integration of measures including agronomic (improved seed and fertilizer) and structural (terraces to control water flow and loss of top soil, including nutrients and seeds) results in an increase of crop yield already in the first year. The effects cannot be attributed to one or the other measure specifically.

ການຜະລິດອາຫານສັດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Alfalfa is planted on the risers.

ຄວາມໜາແໜ້ນ ຂອງຜົນຜະລິດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ

ເນື້ອທີ່ການຜະລິດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

No change in total area for production, as the riser of the terraces are used for fodder production. However, there is some reduction of area available for annual crop production.

ຜົນກະທົບດ້ານວັດທະນາທໍາສັງຄົມ

ການຄໍ້າປະກັນ ສະບຽງອາຫານ / ກຸ້ມຢູ່ກຸ້ມກິນ

ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ປັບປຸງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The yield of the main staple crop (wheat)has been reported to be double on terraced plots with application of improved seed and fertilizer. In addition, fodder crops, such as alfalfa grown on the risers, can be harvested.

ຄວາມຮູ້ກ່ຽວກັບ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ / ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ປັບປຸງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Technicians in the villages were trained in the use of A-frames. Implementers of terraces voiced that they themselves would not be able to replicated the designing of terraces.

ສະຖານະການຂອງສັງຄົມ ແລະ ກຸ່ມດ້ອຍໂອກາດທາງເສດຖະກິດ

ຮ້າຍແຮງຂຶ້ນ
ປັບປຸງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Female headed households are not included. Technology is implemented on private land, therefore people without land are excluded. However, they have the opportunity to earn income as a hired worker for the SLM implementers.

ຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ

ວົງຈອນນໍ້າ / ນໍ້າ

ການໄຫຼ ຂອງນໍ້າໜ້າດິນ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ດິນ

ຄວາມຊຸ່ມຂອງດິນ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

in situ water harvesting

ການສູນເສຍດິນ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ຊີວະນານາພັນ: ສັດ, ພືດ

ການປົກຫຸ້ມຂອງພືດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Both an increase in vegetation cover during the growing season when most erosive rains are observed as well as permenant vegetation cover from perennial alfalfa plants can been observed.

ມວນຊີວະພາບ / ຢູ່ເທິງຊັ້ນດິນ C

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ

6.2 ຜົນກະທົບທາງອ້ອມ ຈາກການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ນໍ້າຖ້ວມຢູ່ເຂດລຸ່ມນໍ້າ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ

ການທັບຖົມ ຂອງດິນຕະກອນ ຢູ່ເຂດລຸ່ມນໍ້າ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ

ການປ້ອງກັນ / ຄວາມອາດສາມາດ ການກັ່ນຕອງ

ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ປັບປຸງ
ກໍານົດ ການປະເມີນ ຜົນກະທົບທາງນອກ (ການວັດແທກ):

These comments apply to 6.1 and 6.2:
- Socio-economic impacts: Based on the Land User Protocols: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits for their Technology. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in product diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all SLM implementers are reflected here.
- Ecological impacts and off-site impacts: Based on the Land User Protocols: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of the Technology on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by all implementers are reflected here.

6.3 ການປ້ອງກັນ ແລະ ຄວາມບອບບາງ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢິ ໃນການປ່ຽນແປງສະພາບດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ແລະ ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບອາກາດທີ່ມີການປ່ຽນແປງທີ່ຮຸນແຮງ / ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ (ຮັບຮູ້ໄດ້ໂດຍຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ)

ອາກາດ ທີ່ກ່ຽວພັນກັບຄວາມຮຸນແຮງ (ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ)

ໄພພິບັດທາງອຸຕຸນິຍົມ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ພະຍຸຝົນ ດີຫຼາຍ
ໄພພິບັດທາງພູມອາກາດ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ແຫ້ງແລ້ງ ດີ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Based on the multi-criteria matrix: SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly , well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrices compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 ການວິເຄາະຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ຜົນປະໂຫຍດ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Costs: As larger parts of the establishment of the technology were covered by the project, farmers consideration of the total costs are likely underestimated.
Benefits: Two plots were terraced in 2012, and 5 plots in 2013. However, most terraces were implemented in 2014 (11 plots ) and 2015 (8 plots). The Rustaq NRM study was conducted in autumn 2016. 1-2 years of cultivating the terrace system is too short a period for providing evidence on short- and long-term returns.

6.5 ການປັບຕົວຮັບເອົາເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • 1-10%
ຖ້າຫາກວ່າມີ, ປະລິມານ (ຈໍານວນຂອງຄົວເຮືອນ / ເນື້ອທີ່ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ):

10.7 ha has been terraced within the 3 study villages with LIPT project support.

ທັງໝົດນັ້ນ ແມ່ນໃຜ ໄດ້ປັບຕົວເຂົ້າ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ, ມີຈັກຄົນ ທີ່ສາມາດເຮັດເອງໄດ້, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ປາດສະຈາກ ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ທາງດ້ານອຸປະກອນ / ການຈ່າຍເປັນເງິນ?
  • 0-10%
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Based on the Land User Protocol: Individual SLM implementers were asked whether they received support for implementing the Technology. Each indicated the type of support he received from the proposed options: "Full Support 100%, Some Support, No Support 0%". 3 implementers claimed full project support, 22 claimed some support, and 1 implementer claimed no project support.

6.6 ການປັບຕົວ

ໄດ້ມີການດັດປັບ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເພື່ອໃຫ້ແທດເໝາະກັບເງື່ອນໄຂ ການປ່ຽນແປງບໍ?

ແມ່ນ

ຖ້າແມ່ນ, ລະບຸແມ່ນເງື່ອນໄຂ ໃດທີ່ໄດ້ປ່ຽນແປງ ທີ່ເຮັດໃຫ້ເກີດມີການປັບຕົວ:
  • ຕະຫຼາດມີການປ່ຽນແປງ
ລະບຸການຮັບຮອງເອົາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ການອອກແບບ, ອຸປະກອນການ / ຊະນິດພັນ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ):

Ferula is planted on the terrace in addition to wheat and alfalfa. The resin-like gum from the dried sap extracted from the stem and roots of Ferula is in high demand as a basic product for pharmaceuticals. Ferula can be sold to local merchants, who resell it to India, and is thus intercropped by some farmers on the terraces.

6.7 ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ
Notable higher crop yields on the plots where improved seeds and fertilizer are applied on newly established terraces. Farmers have high expectations for the years to come and for yields of annual crops (such as wheat) to remain high.
Diversity of crops planted on terraces is valued by the land users. For example, cultivating wheat and alfalfa on the terraced plot provides household with the key crop and also fodder for the livestock and thereby contributes to securing food for the family and maintaining better health of their cattle. Additionally, some farmers have started intercropping Ferula, a medical herb and cash crop.
Farmers percieve soil quality on terraced plots with fertilizer application to improve. An improvement in soil fertility (which may relate first of all to the effects of fertilizer application) and increased soil moisture have been reported. Single statements also related to effectiveness of applying fertilizer on terraced plots, as here fertilizer is not washed away during rains.
Terraced plots are considered less vulnerable to the effects of rainstorms and dry spells, than non-terraced plots on slopes where annual crops are cultivated.
Women considered an advantage that during the establishment phase, men were paid by the project to work on their own land when building the terraces. Thus, there was no need for men to go for seasonal labour migration and they stayed at home. At the same time the terracing of the land is seen as an opportunity to improve the land resources on their families plots. An increase in women's workload related to bringing food to the field during establishment was considered to be acceptable, especially compared to the expected increase in yields.
ຈຸດແຂງ / ຈຸດດີ / ໂອກາດ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ
The application of fertilizer on terraces is expected to show multiple effects: yields from these fertility depleted croplands can be increased. This includes an increase in biomass production, which may be used as green manure on the field or as animal feed or as straw. Further, vegetation cover during the growing period can be increased, which helps to protect the soil from erosive rains.
The project paid establishment of terraces on farmers' plots provided 20 days of employment per 2 jerib (0.4 ha) plot for farmers in their home villages. At the same time the terracing is a long-term investment into the land resources. Terracing provides an opportunity to decrease soil degradation and even to rehabilitate degraded lands. Application of improved seeds and fertilizer contribute in the establishment year to increased crop and fodder yields.

6.8 ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແລະ ວິທີການແກ້ໄຂບັນຫາ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງໃນມຸມມອງຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
The implementation costs are high and land users state that it is impossible for them to cover establishment costs on their own.
Farmers expectations partly exceeded the actual yield harvested from the terraces in the first years after the implementation.
Both men and women from households that have implemened terraces state that during the establishment year the household experiences an increased workload, that is not well compatible with other on-going household / farm activities.
The production area for annual crops only is slighty reduced. So far not all farmers seem to use the production area fully. Intercropping with perennial plants is recommended in order to use the risers of the terraces for fodder production. Some farmers have started intercropping of Ferula as cash crop.
Sufficient own land is required. How does the amount of cropland affect the innovation readiness of a farmer? A better understanding is required on farmers willingness to take a risk for investing in a new SLM technology, and especially terracing, and influencing factors.
ຈຸດອ່ອນ/ຂໍ້ບົກຜ່ອງ/ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
The technology requires technical knowledge for implementation and maintenance, which is key for successful adoption, replication and upscaling. The project trained technicians to support land users with the design of terraces. While the project aided implementation of terraces has improved the general knowledge and awareness of the land users on the benefits of SLM practices, most farmers will not be able to design terraces on their own.
Technically correct design of the terrace presents a challenge and might not be always achieved. Forward sloping terrace benches may lead to channeled runoff and have the risk of rills and gully formation.
There is an attribution gap regarding the increased wheat yields, especially with regard to individual contribution of the terraces, the application of improved seeds and the fertilizer, and the combined effects (role of terraces in making improved seed and fertilizer application effective). A cost benefit analysis (CBA) needs to be conducted to determine short- and long-term returns of the SLM technology. On farm trials are necessary for assessing impacts of the different measures (agricultural, vegetative and structural measures) before-and-after, as well as with-without the SLM technology.
Terrace maintenance is crucial. If not maintained properly for a longer period of time, the damaged terrace can lead to further land degradation through channeled runoff, sever erosion and possible risks of disaster for the surrounding settlements on the slopes.
The technology is established mainly by better-off households, which own more land than the average SLM implementer.

7. ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ ແລະ ການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່

7.1 ວິທີການ / ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນ

  • ການສໍາພາດ ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ

Focus group discussions (FGD) were organized by the CDE team to collect information from SLM implementers. Total of 26 land users who have implemented terraces participated in the FGDs held in the three villages of Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.
Interviews were conducted by the HAFL team to collect information from persons representing all the three study villages. Very detailed interviews were conducted with 74 persons interested in terrace implementation, of which 46 persons are from households that already have implemented terraces.

  • ສໍາພາດ ຊ່ຽວຊານ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

The technical staff of Tdh LIPT Project in Rustaq, responsible for the implementation of the technology were consulted on a number of occasions during the compilation of this material.

  • ການລວບລວມ ບົດລາຍງານ ແລະ ເອກະສານ ອື່ນໆ ທີ່ມີຢູ່ແລ້ວ

Information provided in the reports of Tdh LIPT Project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

ເມື່ອໃດທີ່ໄດ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ (ຢູ່ພາກສະໜາມ)?

17/10/2016

ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

ຂະຫຍາຍທັງໝົດ ຍຸບທັງໝົດ

ເນື້ອໃນ