Энэ бол мэдээлэл хуучирсан, идэвхигүй хувилбар. Одоогийн хувилбар руу очих.
Арга барил
Идэвхигүй

Farmer innovation and self-help group [Тажикистан]

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approaches_2661 - Тажикистан

Бүрэн гүйцэд байдал: 86%

1. Ерөнхий мэдээлэл

1.2 Арга барилыг баримтжуулах болон үнэлгээ хийхэд оролцсон хүн эсвэл байгууллагын холбоо барих хаяг

Мэдээлэл өгсөн хүн(с)

ГТМ мэргэжилтэн :
Газар ашиглагч :

Sharif Aliev family

Khagatai Village, Rayon of Varzob

Тажикистан

Арга барилыг баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн байгууллага(ууд)-ын нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
CAMP - Central Asian Mountain Partnership (CAMP - Central Asian Mountain Partnership) - Киргизстан

1.3 WOCAT-аар баримтжуулсан өгөгдлийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцөл

Эмхэтгэгч болон гол мэдээлэгч хүн(хүмүүс) WOCAT аргачлалаар баримтжуулсан мэдээллийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцлийг хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн.

Тийм

1.4 ГТМ-ийн технологийн асуулгын(д) суурь мэдээлэл(д)

2. ГТМ Арга барилын тодорхойлолт

2.1 Арга барилын товч тодорхойлолт

An innovative land user, assisted by a self-help group has overcome many administrative and technical problems to establish a fruit garden on previously degraded communal grazing land.

2.2 Арга барилын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт

Арга барилын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт :

Aims / objectives: Although in the 1980s the soviet government supported the establishment of private gardens in specified areas, the lack of irrigation water and suitable land often restricted this process. That was the case for Khagatai village, situated on the narrow valley floor of the Varzob River, below steep loess slopes. This marginal area is used for grazing and shows severe signs of water erosion; the hillsides are considered to be of little agricultural value. In the early 1980s, widespread unemployment evidently had the effect of stimulating people to use their own initiative. In 1982, one innovative farmer started to fence-off an area of half a hectare to establish a private fruit garden on the degraded grazing land. Some say that the fencing of plots for private fruit and hay production is a traditional practice - abandoned after the 1950s - but taken up again recently to re-establish rights to individual plots. The practice is widespread in the higher villages of Varzob, where the farmer noted it and decided to set up his own plot. When it came to practical implementation, despite the land user having five sons, the labour-intensive terracing was only completed thanks to the voluntary assistance of relatives and friends, a tradition locally known as 'hashar'. At first, when his initiative began to take shape on land officially owned by a state farm, no action was taken. However, the change in land management quickly showed positive productive results, and it may have been through jealousy that the people of Khagatai village then reported the case to the authorities. The watering of the garden on the unstable loess slope in the immediate vicinity of the village, and the consequent risk of landslides, was put forward as the reason for the complaint. The authorities opened an investigation and a number of newspaper articles were written about the case.

Methods: Since independent decision making was not common in the soviet states, and rapid degradation of newly irrigated lands on the loess deposits was a big issue, the case of this fruit garden attracted a lot of attention. However, when they observed the improved state of the vegetation on the plot, the authorities finally allowed the farmer to continue. In 1993 the prohibition on private cultivation of land was lifted in order to reduce problems of food shortage caused during the civil war that followed independence. It was during this time that four other land users from Khagatai village spontaneously began to imitate this practice.

2.3 Арга барилын зурагууд

2.5 Арга барил нэвтрүүлсэн улс орон / бүс нутаг / байршил

Улс :

Тажикистан

Улс/аймаг/сум:

Khagatai

Байршлын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт:

Varzob

2.6 Арга барилыг эхлэх, дуусах огноо

Эхлэх жилийг тэмдэглэ:

1982

2.7 Арга барилын төрөл

  • уламжлалт / уугуул

2.8 Арга барилын үндсэн зорилго, зорилтууд

To establish an orchard with grape vines, fruit trees and fodder crops for private use.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The land in question is part of a communal grazing area and property rights are officially with Khagatai village (in Soviet times with a state farm). Uncontrolled grazing on communal lands has resulted in overgrazing, and thus to progressive water erosion on the steep loess deposits. No attention was paid by the local authorities to soil and water conservation measures in areas considered to be of low agricultural potential.

2.9 Арга барилын хүрээнд хэрэгжсэн Технологи/Технологиудад дэмжсэн эсвэл саад учруулсан нөхцлүүд

нийгэм / соёл / шашны хэм хэмжээ, үнэт зүйлс
  • Хазаарлалт

Jealousy of other village members, who didn't like another land user fencing off a plot in communal grazing land.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Others became convinced after the change in land use. Newspaper articles on the case also helped to form public opinion.

санхүүгийн нөөц, үйлчилгээний хүртээмж / боломж
  • Хазаарлалт

All inputs had to be provided by the land user himself.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Creative ways were developed to provide material for fencing, for transportation of irrigation water and for access to manure.

Бүтэц зохион байгуулалт
  • Хазаарлалт

Private initiatives on state land were not encouraged under the soviet system.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Activities tended to start on marginal land that was of little agronomic interest to state farms.

Хууль, эрхзүйн хүрээ (газар эзэмшил, газар, ус ашиглах эрх)
  • Хазаарлалт

No individual property rights.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: In soviet times the land belonged to a state farm. Today the land belongs to Khagatai village: efforts to achieve official

ГТМ-ийн талаарх мэдлэг, техникийн дэмжлэг авах боломж
  • Хазаарлалт

For the establishment of the orchard irrigation water was needed. This had to be brought 200 m up a steep slope.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Water in old inner tubes was transported to the orchard by donkey.

Бусад
  • Хазаарлалт

Availability of labour: Construction of terraces for tree planting is very labour intensive.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Voluntary work of relatives and friends.

3. Оролцогч талуудын оролцоо ба үүргүүд

3.1 Арга барилд оролцогч талууд болон тэдгээрийн үүргүүд

  • Орон нутгийн газар ашиглагч / орон нутгийн иргэд

Mainly men participated: Women are not usually expected to carry out field activities for cultural reasons. The coffee harvest is the only activity where men and women work together in the field.

3.2 Арга барилын янз бүрийн үе шатанд орон нутгийн газар ашиглагчид / бүлэглэлүүдийг татан оролцуулах
Орон нутгийн газар ашиглагч / орон нутгийн иргэдийн оролцоо Хэн оролцсоныг тодорхойлж, үйл ажиллагааг тайлбарлана уу
санаачлага/идэвхжүүлэлт өөрийн хүчийг нэгтгэсэн individual land user; the initiative was initiated by an individual land user
Төлөвлөгөө өөрийн хүчийг нэгтгэсэн step by step
Хэрэгжилт өөрийн хүчийг нэгтгэсэн land user; the project was implemented by the individual land user, relatives and neighbours participated voluntarily in terrace construction
Мониторинг/ үнэлгээ өөрийн хүчийг нэгтгэсэн by the individual land user; the project is monitored and evaluated by the individual land user
Research интерактив post-implementation documentation (participatory)

3.4 ГТМ-ийн технологи/технологиуд сонгох шийдвэр

Хэрэгжүүлэх Технологи/Технологиудын сонголтыг хийж шийдвэр гаргасан хүнийг тодорхойлно уу:
  • Газар ашиглагч дангаараа (өөрийн санаачлага)
Тайлбар :

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by land users alone (self-initiative / bottom-up)

4. Техникийн дэмжлэг, чадавхи бүрдүүлэх, мэдлэгийн менежмент

4.1 Чадавхи бэхжүүлэх/сургалт

Газар эзэмшигчид / бусад оролцогч талуудад сургалт явуулсан уу?

Үгүй

4.2 Зөвлөх үйлчилгээ

Газар ашиглагчдад зөвлөх үйлчилгээ авах боломжтой байдаг уу?

Тийм

  • through interaction of land users
Тодорхойлолт / тайлбар:

Key elements: Observations, farmer-to-farmer exchange of ideas.

4.3 Институцийг бэхжүүлэх (байгууллагын хөгжил)

Арга барилаар дамжуулан институц байгуулагдаж эсвэл бэхжсэн үү?
  • Үгүй

4.4 Мониторинг ба үнэлгээ

Мониторинг болон үнэлгээ нь арга барилын хэсэг үү?

Тийм

Тайлбар:

Bio-physical aspects were ad hoc monitored by land users through observations; indicators: growth of seedlings

Economic / production aspects were ad hoc monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: comparison of yields between different years

no. of land users involved aspects were ad hoc monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: None

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: There were a few changes due to the observations made by the land user: he started to apply supplementary irrigation to the tree seedlings, as well as applying manure each year.

4.5 Судалгаа

Судалгаа арга барилын хэсэг нь байсан уу?

Тийм

Дэлгэрэнгүй мэдээллийг өгч, хэн судалгаа явуулсныг бичнэ үү:

There had been no research until the identification and documentation of this initiative through a Tajik-Swiss project under the framework of the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South (coordinated by the the Centre for Development and Environment, Switzerland).

5. Санхүүгийн болон гадаад материаллаг дэмжлэг

5.1 ГТМ-ийн Арга барилын бүрэлдэхүүн хэсгийн жилийн төсөв

Тайлбар (жнь: санхүүжилтийн гол эх үүсвэр / гол хандивлагчид):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: other (land user/private): 100.0%

5.2 Газар ашиглагчдад санхүүгийн / материаллаг дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн

Технологи / технологийг хэрэгжүүлэхэд газар ашиглагчид санхүүгийн / материаллаг дэмжлэг авсан уу?

Үгүй

5.3 Тодорхой зардлыг даахад чиглэсэн дэмжлэгт (хөдөлмөрийн хүчийг оролцуулаад)

Тайлбар:

All the inputs were fully financed by the land user himself. This included hand tools, fruit tree seedlings, vines, manure, supplementary irrigation, water transport by donkey and by car.

5.4 Кредит

Арга барилын хүрээнд ГТМ-ийн үйл ажиллагаанд зориулж зээлд хамрагдсан уу?

Үгүй

5.5 Бусад урамшуулал, хэрэгсэл

ГТМ-ийн технологийг хэрэгжилтийг дэмжихэд ашигласан бусад урамшуулал, хэрэгсэл байсан уу?

Үгүй

6. Нөлөөллийн дүн шинжилгээ ба дүгнэлт

6.1 Арга барилын нөлөөллүүд

Арга барил нь ГТМ-ийн технологийг хэрэгжүүлж, хадгалахад газар ашиглагчдад тусласан уу?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

There has been a significant, though localised, improvement in soil and water management.

Арга барил нь эмзэг бүлгийнхнийг нийгэм, эдийн засгийн хувьд чадавхижуулсан уу?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

Other land users from Khagatai village have adopted the system on the same hillside. They started fencing-off plots in the 1990s during the civil war. At that time many people were unemployed, and labour was therefore available. Furthermore there was a shortage in food supplies and people relied on . It was very unusual during the soviet times for a villager to take the initiative to establish a private plot on state land. However in this example, the success in establishing a vineyard on an overgrazed hill convinced the administration of its worth. Other land users have now followed this approach.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их
Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

6.2 ГТМ-ийг хэрэгжүүлэх газар ашиглагчидын гол санаачилга

  • үйлдвэрлэл нэмэгдсэн
  • Байгаль орчны ухамсар
  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

6.3 Арга барилын үйл ажиллагааны тогтвортой байдал

Газар ашиглагчид арга барилаар дамжуулан хэрэгжүүлсэн арга хэмжээг тогтвортой хадгалж чадах уу (гадны дэмжлэггүйгээр)?
  • Тийм
Хэрэв тийм бол яаж гэдгийг тайлбарлана уу:

Because this approach is based on local initiatives there is no reason why it should not be sustainable. The insecure land use rights are the only potential risk to the continuation of the activities.

6.4 Арга барилын тогтвортой/давуу тал/боломжууд

Газар ашиглагчдын тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Rehabilitation of marginal land for production and generation of additional income. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Give property rights to land users to motivate further investments in soil and water conservation/production.)
Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Bottom-up approach: independent decision making by the individual land user based on dynamic and flexible responses as required. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Give property rights to land users to motivate further investments in soil and water conservation/production.)

6.5 Арга барилын дутагдалтай/сул тал/аюул болон тэдгээрийн хэрхэн даван туулах арга замууд

Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон сул тал/ дутагдал/ эрсдэл Тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах вэ?
Current systems of land ownership, currently the land belongs to Khagatai. Provide land ownership to the farmers.
Not all farmers can apply this technology since it is location specific. Identify if fodder production (cut-and-carry) would be more attractive than open grazing; allocate land to the farmers.
Only families with sufficient labour resources can establish such a garden by themselves. Incentives from the state or other organisations are needed.
Since it is an initiative of an individual land user, the SWC technology has not been documented so far, nor evaluated, and lessons learned have not been spread among the land users. Documentation and spreading of lessons learned.

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