UNCCD

Small Water Impounding Project (SWIP) for Upland  Area Development [Philippines]

Reporting Entity: Philippines

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: Não

Completeness: 80%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

Small Water Impounding Project (SWIP) for Upland  Area Development

Country:

Philippines

Reporting Entity:

Philippines

Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:

Não

Specifications

Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

Libasan small water impounding projects (SWIP) was established in Nabunturan for soil and water conservation, supplemental irrigation, and fish culture. The project consists of modified homogenous earth structure with a total storage area of 14 ha and service area of about 150-200 hectares. It has also provision for inland fishery production including fish hatchery for fingerlings production. Watershed management is a very important component of the system and was implemented through the LGU's Forest Protection Program. Seedlings (i.e. coconut, coffee and fruit trees) dispersal was initiated by the municipality thru  a strong local and community policy framework.

Location

Libasan, Nabunturan, Compostela Valley, Philippines|

Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

The soils in the service area were developed from alluvial deposits with clayey texture, deep and poorly  drained internally. The soils in the watershed area consist of shallow to moderately deep, moderately  drained clay loam to clay soils.|
Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year  with annual mean of 1,772 mm. Lowest rainfall is on February to March (92 mm) while the highest is June (207 mm). January is the coldest (26.8oC) while May is the warmest (28.4 oC)                                                      
The service area is characterized by level to nearly level topography while the watershed area consists of gently rolling to hilly  landscape

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

Nabunturan is a first class municipality. The total income of the municipality significantly increased by 20.8% from 86.9 million pesos in 2007 to 105.6 million pesos in 2008. The internal revenue allotment (IRA) of the municipality was 72.63 million pesos in 2008 for an equivalent of 1,078 pesos IRA per capita .
While almost 70% of the total land area is agricultural, 20% are uplands. In general there are land tenure security problems. The total area of Nabunturan base on land use pattern, rural area covered 23,432. 237 ha and the urban area totaled to 687.763. |
Due to its arable land and generally good climate, agriculture is the primary economic activity. Majority or about 68.5% of the total land area of the municipality is predominantly occupied by agricultural lands. To support its farmers, the municipality has invested in several agricultural support facilities such small water impounding project (SWIP) and communal irrigation systems.|

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

Libasan  SWIP had been implemented to address both environmental targets (i.e. conservation and protection of the environment) and socio-economic targets (i.e. source of livelihoods, profitable business in agriculture and fishery) of the local village. It has improved  the way of life of the community over the years due to increased agricultural and fishery productivity as water from the reservoir is sufficient the whole year round. The local government has initiated a watershed protection program to prolong the life of the project by distributing seedlings which were planted in the watershed. The Farmers Association became stronger and more efficient in the operation and maintenance of the system though various trainings its members have attended. Thru strong leadership and cooperation among members, the Libasan Farmers Association became a multi-purpose cooperative with outstanding assets amounting to 4.1 million pesos with the LIbasan SWIP as the core facility.|

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

1. Limited source of livelihoods
2. Inadequate water supply during dry season
3. Soil erosion, excessive surface runoff and flooding during the rainy season|

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

Uncontrolled surface runoff, soil erosion, soil fertility decline, and flooding of low-lying areas are the major concerns in the upland  and adjoining areas of Nabunturan due to lack of defenses in the middle and upper reaches of the watershed. Yet, during dry season there is limited water supply to support agricultural activities and other related endeavors.  With limited sources of livelihoods, farmers then are forced to encroach the watershed resulting to continued deforestation that further worsened the situation. This “vicious cycle” was gradually halted by the establishment of Small water impounding project (SWIP). It acted as the first line of defense against flood in the upper reaches of the watershed. More importantly, it collected and stored surface runoff and direct rainfall that would otherwise flow directly to waterways with highly erosive velocity. It also captured eroded materials from the watershed and thus helped prevent natural waterways from becoming shallow.|

Specify the objectives of the best practice

1. To conserve rainwater through rainwater harvesting techniques such as small water impounding project (SWIP)
2. To prevent and control top soil erosion through runoff management;
3. To develop sources of livelihood in the uplands and adjoining areas

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

1.  Study possible farm enterprises and farming systems
2.  Establish appropriate and cost-effective farm enterprises
1. Introduction of soil and water conservation measures in the   watershed
2. Farmers training and technology demonstration
3. Farmers adoption and field implementation
1.  Site selection, field survey and bio-physical characterization
2.  Hydrologic and engineering design studies  
3.  Consultation meeting with affected farmers and beneficiaries
4.  Project implementation, O and M activities

Short description and technical specifications of the technology

The Libasan SWIP is currently being managed by the Libasan Primary Multi-purpose Cooperative (LPMC). It was primarily designed for soil and water conservation  by collecting direct rainfall and surface runoff  (rainwater harvesting).  It has a reservoir surface area of 14 ha which is currently being utilized for supplemental irrigation, inland fish culture, fresh water fish hatchery , and for recreation. Its present irrigation service area is 150-200 hectares. The structural component of a typical SWIP consists of the following physical features: a) earth embankment, b) spillway, c) outlet works, d) irrigation system, and e) access road.
The best practice includes forest preservation, protection, rehabilitation and   conservation of the remaining natural resources thru reforestation in the watershed.  These efforts address the problem of siltation in the reservoir and denudation of the watershed and maintain the effective storage capacity of the reservoir. Trees provided by the local government and planted in the project watershed include:
    1. Budded Rubber
    2. Coconut
    3. Coffee
In the service area, farmers raise ducks to control pests (golden snails) in the paddy field during crop vegetative stage and after harvest.

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Name and address of the institution developing the technology

Bureau of Soils and Water Management |SRDC Building
Elliptical Road cor. Visayas Aven.
Diliman, Quezon City
Philippines
Tel  +632 920 43 82
E mail: silvinotejad.bswm07@gmail.com

Was the technology developed in partnership?

Sim

List the partners:

1. DA- Regional Field Units
2. Local Government Units
3. Farmers Association

Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

  • Local initiative
  • National initiative – government-led

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?

Sim

List local stakeholders involved:

1. Farmers Association
2. Municipal Government Unit of Nabunturan
3  Provincial Government of Compostela Valley
4. Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit
5. Other national agencies with local presence – Philippine Coconut Authority, Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA)|

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

The farmers association  thru the LPMPC, being the direct beneficiaries, is the one
responsible in the operation and maintenance of the system. The Municipal Government of Nabunturan, the Provincial Government of Compostela Valley and the DA-Regional Field Units (DA-RFU) provide agricultural support services in terms of planting materials for the watershed protection, post-harvest facilities, greenhouse and even technical and financial assistance. In case of technical O & M problems, the DA-RFU thru its Regional Agricultural Engineering Division, monitors the project operation and provides technical support and assistance to the farmers. National agencies with local presence also provide agricultural facilities and inputs. This arrangement creates strong linkages among key local player and facilitates sharing of their resources to ensure project sustainability.

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?

Sim

By means of what?
  • Consultation
  • Participatory approaches

Analysis

Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

1.Increased cropping intensity by 100% and improved  agricultural productivity
2. Introduction of inland fishery production, and fingerlings production from the freshwater fish hatchery|

1. Contributed to the soil and water conservation and flood mitigation effort of the local government
2. Uplifted the living condition of local people thru increased economic activity

1.Enhanced the organizational and management capacities of  farmer-members thru continuing skills development
2. Develop new habitat for wildlife  and preserve and protect forest resources thru the watershed management component of the project

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

Potential reduction in flood  peaks in adjoining waterways.
More economic activities in the neighboring village due to  increased agricultural and fisheries production and generation of jobs

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

The development of Libasan Reservoir provides new habitat for wildlife. A variety of indigenous fish species were also stocked in the reservoir. Meanwhile, the watershed management component of the project encourages enrichment planting and maintenance of protection forest, which help maintain a healthier and more bio-diverse watershed area.
With stored water available the whole year round, the practice contributes to reducing the vulnerability of the local people and ecosystem against the impacts of climate change particularly drought. The impounding reservoir also serves as the first line of defense against flood. It helps reduce stream bank erosion and scouring through a more controlled water flow and minimize downstream siltation as it captures eroded materials from sloping lands. The continuous planting of trees in the watershed will have long term impact in terms of  carbon sequestration which  will help mitigate climate change.

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Sim

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Sim

Where?

Nationwide|Wthin Nabunturan, Compostela Valley  – Magsaysay 1 SWIP, |Within Nabunturan, Compostela Valley – Magsaysay 2 SWIP

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?

Sim

Specify which type of incentives:
  • Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc)

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Strong linkages with local and national agencies
Positive socio-economic and environmental benefits
Adoption of cost-sharing scheme

Replicability

In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?

Sim

At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national
  • National

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

1. Good governance and strong partnership
2. Strong farmers association to operate and maintain the project

Related to technical aspects

In the design of project such as SWIP, beneficiaries should be properly consulted and their inputs (i.e. field observation) be considered in the project design.  |

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