Approaches

Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction [Bangladesh]

Protibondhita Bandhob Durjog Jhuki Rash

approaches_2001 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 94%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.

Pessoa(s)-chave

DRR specialist:
DRR specialist:

Islam Shahidul

+8801733143435

shahidulpls@yahoo.com

Centre for Disability in Development (CDD)

Gaibandha

Bangladesh

DRR specialist:

Dey Ashutosh

880-2-9887251 / +8801787662993

ashutosh.dey@cbm.org

CBM

Country Coordination Office CBM International H # 12 (GF) R # 2/A, Block-F Banani, Dhaka-1213

Bangladesh

DRR Specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Christoffel Blindenmission (CBM) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

09/11/2016

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da gestão sustentável da terra

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village
technologies

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village [Bangladesh]

The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village provides safe housing, food security and income generation for multiple families, including persons with disabilities, in a highly flood prone area of Gaibandha District in northern Bangladesh. The land was raised above flood level and is protected by deep rooted fruit trees to prevent soil ...

  • Compilador/a: Subir Saha

2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

The disability inclusive approach is centered around the meaningful contribution and leadership of persons with disabilties during the entire project management cycle, from the planning stage to the evaluation of the impact of a project. It contributes to empowering them to overcome social exclusion and recognizes their needs and priorities as persons who are disproportionally at risk of disaster.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

The main charactistic and central feature of the approach is that persons with disabilties can actively and meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from sustainable land management/disaster risk reduction activities. The implementing organization needs to invest sufficient time and financial ressources into the formation and strenthening of self-representation groups of persons with disabilities and support their active engagement with the local government and the wider community to address the physical and attitudinal barriers that hinder their full participation in the project and society in general.

The aim is twofold: On the one hand, the participation of persons with disabitities ensures that their needs and priorities are fully taken into account in the project design and implementation, to ensure that they can benefit equally from it. On the other hand, it contributes to reducing barriers beyond the project and empowers them to demand their rights in other areas of human development, like education, health or livelihood.

The main stages of disability inclusion in the implementation of a SLM/DRR technology are:

1) Formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities,
2) trainings and other capacity development activities for the groups, including rights awareness sessions and organizational management trainings,
3) set up the collaboration between the groups and the local government and with other members of the community,
4) participation of persons with disabilities/group members in the planning phase to decide on the technology and adapt the technology to universal design standards, which takes into account their needs and the needs of other groups with other specific accessiblity needs, like the elderly or pregnant women,
5) persons with disabilities (together with other land users) support the introduction of the technology (including the construction activities) by providing manual labor and supervision functions
6) full handover of the technology to land users, ensuring Joint ownership includes persons with disabilities, and provision of trainings for self-maintenance,
7) participation of persons with disabilties in the evaluation of the impact of the technology, sharing of lessons and good practices and continuous advocacy for community development and for the rights of persons with disabilties.

Experience from Bangladesh shows that what the land users, including persons with disabilties, like about the approach is: The strong community engagement, the empowerment and increased status of persons with disabilities, the collaboration between persons with disabilities and persons without disability, and the adaptation of existing technology to fit the needs of persons with disability.





2.3 Fotos da abordagem

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada

Country:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

Gaibandha District

Further specification of location:

Horipur Union, Sundargonj Sub district

2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Indique o ano de início:

2015

Ano de término (caso a abordagem não seja mais aplicada):

2016

Comments:

Project "Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village" implemented from December 2015 to September 2016.

2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Baseado em projeto/programa

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

To empower persons with disabilities to meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from the implementation of an SLM/DRR technology.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Normas e valores sociais/culturais/religiosos
  • Inibitivo

The social stigma and exclusion, that persons with disabilities experience in rural Bangladesh, was a challenge for the project. Persons with disabilities are sometimes believed to be incapable of contributing anything meaningful to society and village life. Some community members did not want to associate with persons with disabilities. This required an extra effort to ensure the participation of the wider community in the project and it required sustained advocacy and awareness raising for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Propício

The financial resources for the implementation of the technology and the extra ressources needed to ensure disability inclusion, were readily available because the technology was widely and positively recognized by the community and by donors.

Quadro institucional
  • Propício

The institutional environment was overwhelmingly supportive of the implementation of the project. The local Union Council government, schools, mosques and other civil society organizations were in favor of the technology and approach and supported the implementation.

Colaboração/coordenção de atores
  • Propício

Beneficiaries/land users were selected in a participative process, involving the whole community. The process was transparent and inclusive. It was a foundation for the smooth collaboration with beneficiaries and other involved stakeholders later on.

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Propício

To ensure joint ownership of beneficiaries of the land on which the SLM/DRR Technology was implemented, an exchange of land was needed. Due to the remoteness and scarce population of the implementation area in rural Bangladesh, a cooperative local government and a manageable legal framework this was easy to achieve.
A deep-rooted tube well was installed for water access of the land users. Water use rights were also easy to acquire.

Políticas
  • Propício

No specific policies existed, which significantly affected the implementation of the technology.

Governança da terra (tomada de decisões, implementação e aplicação)
  • Propício

Land ownership was recognized by the local government and land governance was controlled by land owners.

Conhecimento sobre gestão sustentável da terra, acesso a suporte técnico
  • Propício

Indigenous knowledge about SLM was enabling for the implementation of the technology. Technical expertise by the implementing organization (NGO) was available.

Mercados (para comprar entradas, vender produtos) e preços
  • Propício

Inputs for construction and planting were locally available at reasonable prices.

Carga de trabalho, disponibilidade de força de trabalho
  • Propício

During the lean season manpower was abundant in the area, but it was scarce during the planting season. The workload for the implementation of the technology was manageable and could easily be provided by land users themselves.

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

The land users include 10 families who jointly own and inhabit the land of the cluster village.

Land users were closely engaged in the implementation of the technology by participating in decision making processes, informing the design of the technology and contributing to the construction process.

  • Organizações comunitárias

Self-help (self-representation) groups of persons with disabilities are informal community based groups of 15 persons with different types of disabilities (physical-, sensory- and mental disabilities).

The group is closely engaged in the implementation of the technology. It participates in decision making processes, informs the design of the technology, contributes to the construction process, is engaged in the evaluation of the technology and the sharing of learnings about it to the wider community.
The group also provides benefits for its members by supporting them with everyday challenges, which can be of economic, legal or social nature, and promotes the rights of all persons with disabilities in the community.

  • Organização não governamental

The implementing NGOs included an international and a local organization in partnership (CBM and CDD).

CDD was responsible for the overall management of project implementation and the collaboration with other involved local stakeholders. CBM provided training and technical support.

  • Governo local

The Union Parishad government is the lowest level of local government.

The Union Parishad government managed land ownership and approved construction projects.

3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Participativo Land users contributed to the initial situation analysis and joined self-help groups for persons with disabilities.
Planejamento Participativo Land users, and in particular those who are persons with disabilities, participated in all planning and decision making processes related to the design and introduction of the technology, including the selection of the land.
Implementação Apoio externo Land users engaged in the construction of the technology by providing paid and unpaid labor.
Monitoramento/avaliação Participativo The land users monitored the implementation process and gave feedback to the implementing NGOs when changes were needed. Land users participated in the evaluation of the technology and the approach and contributed to the dissemination of good practices and learnings.

3.3 Fluxograma (se disponível)

Descrição:

Not available.

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • todos os atores relevantes, como parte de uma abordagem participativa
Explique:

The cluster village technology was known to the community before the implementation. The technology was suggested by the implementing NGOs to the community, which supported its implementation. The technology was adapted to fit the needs of persons with disabilities based on the decisions of land users with technical support of the implementing NGOs.

Especifique em que base foram tomadas as decisões:
  • Avaliação de conhecimento bem documentado de gestão sustentável de terra (tomada de decisão baseada em evidências)

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?

Sim

Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
  • Equipe de campo/consultores
Caso seja relevante, especifique gênero, idade, status, etnia, etc:

10 males and 15 females, aged between 18 to 55. Three were persons with disabilities. Most of them were daily laborers and share croppers.

Tipo de formação:
  • Em exercício
  • Áreas de demonstração
  • Cursos
Assuntos abordados:

On the job training and demonstration on the construction and maintenance of the technology. Training to self-help groups for persons with disabilities on the rights of persons with disabilities, the use and benefits of the technology for persons with disabilities and the management of self-help groups.

Comments:

Training Subjects were: 1) Group dynamics and Development, 2) Disability inclusive DRR 3) Tree plantation and Vegetable Gardening using organic fertilizer 4) Government safety nets and Rights of the persons with disabilities.

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?

Sim

Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
  • nas áreas dos usuários da terra
  • construction/implementation of technology
Descreva/comentários:

The implementing NGOs provided detailed technical support to land users on the adaptation of the technology to the needs of persons with disabilities, following the standards of universal design.

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, moderadamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Descreva instituição, papéis e responsabilidades, membros, etc.

Local self-help groups and their APEX body (umbrella group) at Union level were strengthened. Their roles of the self-help groups were to establish a mutual support network, raise awareness among group members of disability rights and development issues, pool ressources and give individual persons with disabilities a greater political voice. The APEX body gave the groups contact points beyond their immediate community and gave further weight to their political voice.

Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Financeiro
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação
  • Equipamento
Dê mais detalhes:

To strengthen self-help groups, they were provided with, 1) awarness- and skill development trainings, 2) financial support for climate resilient income generation through agricultural and non-agricultural activities, and 3) assistive devices.

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?

Sim

Comments:

A participatory monitoring and evaluation system was implemented with support of the self-help groups for persons with disabilties.

Caso afirmativo, esta documentação é destinada a ser utilizada para monitoramento e avaliação?

Não

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?

Não

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem

Indique o orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem em US$:

218702,00

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • 100.000-1.000.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

The annual budget includes the total funds used for the introduction of the technology. Funds were provided through the implementing NGOs CBM and CDD, with the support of a private donor from Germany.

5.2 Apoio financeiro/material concedido aos usuários da terra

Os usuários da terra receberam apoio financeiro/material para a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, especifique tipo(s) de apoio, condições e fornecedor(es):

Land users received a daily fee for the labor provided for the introduction of the technology. The NGOs also provided most material input for the technology, including soil, sand, seeds, seedlings, grass, trees, ramp, water and sanitation facilties.

5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Mão-de-obra
Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Parcialmente financiado Labor provided by land users for certain construction actvities was compensated with a daily fee.
  • Equipamento
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Maquinário Totalmente financiado Rent of sand extravation machine was funded by the project.
Ferramentas Totalmente financiado Tools for construction activities was provided to land users by the project.
  • Agrícola
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Sementes Totalmente financiado Seeds and seedlings for the homestead garden was provided by the project.
Fertilizantes Parcialmente financiado The facility for composting organic fertilizer was provided by the project.
Plants Totalmente financiado Deep-rooted fruit trees and grass turfing was provided by the project.
  • Construção
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Madeira Parcialmente financiado Wood for fencing for the homestead vegetable garden in front of all houses and a flood resilient cow sheds in the village was provided by the project.
Soil Totalmente financiado The purchase of soil for the raising of land was funded by the project.
  • Infraestrutura
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Estradas Parcialmente financiado Construction material for barrier free connections to all houses in the village was funded by the project.
Ramp Totalmente financiado A ramp, connecting the cluster village with the road was funded by the project.
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
  • Pago em dinheiro
Comments:

A daily fee of 300 Taka was provided for labor inputs by the land users.

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?

Não

5.5 Outros incentivos ou instrumentos

Foram utilizados outros incentivos ou instrumentos para promover a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?

Não

6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem concedeu autonomia aos usuários locais de terra, melhorou a participação das partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The approach is based on the empowerment of land users, in particularly those who are persons with disabilites. It ensured participation of persons with disablities who would otherwise be isolated and excluded.

A abordagem propiciou a tomada de decisão baseada em evidências?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente
A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The project supported land users with the implementation and use of the technology.

A abordagem melhorou a coordenação e a implementação economicamente eficiente da gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The coordination among land users has improved and actions of land management have become more cost effective.

A abordagem mobilizou/melhorou o acesso aos recursos financeiros para implementação da gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente
A abordagem aprimorou o conhecimento e as capacidades dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Land users were provided with trainings and demonstrations about the implementation and use of the technology.

A abordagem aprimorou o conhecimento e as capacidades de outras partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The local goverment, other members of the community and other non-governmental organizations took note of the technology and sensitization about the rights and needs of persons with disabilties increased.

A abordagem construiu/fortaleceu instituições, colaboração entre partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The approach strengthened the collaboration between the local government and self-help groups of persons with disabilities.

A abordagem atenuou conflitos?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Joint decision making and the resolution of conflicts among land users improved through the joint managment of the land.

A abordagem concedeu autonomia aos grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The approach empowered persons with disabilities and other land users, who all belonged to economically marginalized groups. Their social and economic status greatly improved.

A abordagem melhorou a igualdade de gêneros e concedeu autonomia a mulheres e meninas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Land user participation in the implementation of the technology always included men and women. Self-help groups for persons with disabilities, which were formed and strengthened by the project, always included around 50% women. Meaningful participation by women in group meetings was promoted by the implementing NGOs.

A abordagem encorajou os jovens/as próximas gerações de usuários de terra a se envolverem na gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology was of of high interest for youth clubs, high school students and other young people in the community and many voiced the intention of replicating it in the future.

A abordagem melhorou as questões de posse de terra/diretos do usuário que inibiam a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente
A abordagem resultou em segurança alimentar aprimorada/nutrição melhorada?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology improved food security and nutrition through the introduction of fruit tree plantation and a homestead vegetable garden.

A abordagem melhorou o acesso aos mercados?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The construction of a ramp for road access allows wheelchair users and other persons with limited mobility to better access local markets.

A abordagem resultou em acesso melhorado à água e ao saneamento?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology improved water access through the drilling of a deep bore hole water source for common water access and the construction of barrier free household latrines.

A abordagem resultou em uso/fontes de energia mais sustentável?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology lead to more sustainable energy use through the provision of household based mini solar systems.

A abordagem aprimorou a capacidade dos usuários da terra de adaptar-se a mudanças climáticas/extremos e atenuar os desastres relacionados com o clima?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology offers a safe and accessible space for housing, fruit and vegetable cultivation and livestock shelter. It greatly improved the capacity of land users to adapt to the increasing occurence and intensity of monsoon floods.

A abordagem resultou em emprego, oportunidades de renda?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The technology improved income opportunities through the introduction of a flood resilient fruit tree plantation and homestead vegetable garden. Part of the harvest can be sold on the market.

6.2 Principal motivação dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra

  • Produção aumentada

Vegetable production and fruit production increased and is more flood resilient.

  • Degradação do solo reduzida

Soil erosion and land degradation in the custer village reduced.

  • Riscos de desastre reduzido

Reduction of disaster risk was the main motivating factor for land users. The cluster village is a flood-resilient safe-place providing shelter for the whole community, including their livestock, during flood season.

  • Carga de trabalho reduzida

Household works and household based income generating activities have become easier to organize because of the safety and reliable energy supply that the cluster village provides.

  • Afiliação a movimento/projeto/grupo/rede

Joint ownership of the cluster village by land users, who all belonged to an economically marginalized part of the community (daily laborers and share-croppers) and the formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities, have greatly improved social cohesion among land users.

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Incerto
Caso negativo ou incerto, especifique e comente:

The maintenance of the cluster village (including grass turfing, tree plantation, vegetable garden, solar panels, water and sanitation facilities) is currently managed by land users themselves . Long-term sustainability cannot be evaluated yet.

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Land users greatly apprechiate the empowerment and social cohesion that the approach enabled. Decisions are taken together and conflicts in the village can be mitigated. The Cluster Village has become a safe space and meeting point for the whole community.
The Cluster Village is fully inclusive of persons with disabilities (inclusion in decision making processes and social activities and fully accessible infrastructure), which is something that land users are proud of because it is the first such set-up in the community and is apprechiated as a model by others.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Meaningful participation and of persons with disabilities in project implementation has a signaling effect beyond the project and fosters sensitization of the local government and wider community for more inclusive community development and principles of universal design.
Formation of self-help groups of persons with disabilities and their active engagement with the wider community on community development issues, which go beyond the rights and needs of persons with disabilites, lead to empowerment and geater social inclusion of persons with disabilities.

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Technical knowledge gap when it comes to the maintenance of the technology and the continuous dependence on external support. Invest sufficient ressources in trainings and capacity building and emphasis and formalize the transfer of ownership of the technology to land users.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Formation and strenthening of self-help groups of persons with disabilties to the level where they are sustainable and able to make significant contributions to the projects and community development and demand their rights, takes significant ressources with regard to time and funds invested. Strong committment of the implementing organization to inclusive programming and sufficient internal capacity building.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

6

  • interviews with land users

10

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

2

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

5

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Disability inclusive disaster risk managment, CBM, 2013

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/54741/Disability_Inclusive_Disaster_Risk_Management.pdf

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules