Approaches

Water User Association [Tajikistan]

Ассотсиатсияи Истифодабарандагони Об

approaches_2458 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 86%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
land user:

Kassirov Gayur

WUA

Tajikistan

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
CARITAS (Switzerland) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

Management and control of the water distribution, maintenance of the infrastructure and water conflict resolution by the locally organized association

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

Aims / objectives: Under the National land reform of the Republic of Tajikistan, land resources, which used to belong to kolkhozes and sovkhozes, were distributed to individual households. Such division had two consequences, on the one hand, villagers were given opportunity to develop the land privately as an income-generating source, and on the other hand, it intensified the conflicts over water. The government was not capable to solve the disputes over water and manage the water resources sustainably because of lack of finances and lack of staff. A water users association was created with the aim to replace the former Soviet water management system and to ensure systematic and timely distribution of irrigation water and maintenance, as well as to improve the infrastructure.

Methods: This approach involves thee different actors: association members (water users), the association and the government. The association members have to stick to certain conditions in order to join, namely, they have to pay annual membership fees and water taxes fixed by the government. Government, on its turn, ensures uninterrupted supply of the agreed amount of water and the association is responsible for the control and equal water distribution and all related technical works.

Stages of implementation: Steps involved in creation of the water users association.
1) Local leaders met with representatives of Vodhoz (local state agency, regulating water resources) to discuss creation of an independent association with a full mandate over irrigation water management; 2) Leaders organized a general meeting with people of 5 villages in Muminabad district to inform them about the role and importance of establishing a locally based association and discuss conditions for its membership; 3) Charter of the association was developed, 5 leaders representing villages were elected and the amount of a membership fee was agreed upon; 4) The association was registered as a legal entity; 5) Needed amount of water per growing season was calculated and agreed upon; 5) The Leaders (of association?) and Vodvoz concluded an agreement, according to which, Vodhoz is obliged to provide the required amount of water and the association leaders agree to collect the determined fees for water from the water users and to deliver it on time to Vodvoz.


Role of stakeholders: The role of the three main stakeholders (Vodhoz, association and water users) is to follow the rules of the association. There is a strong element of trust among the association and its members.

2.3 Fotos da abordagem

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Khatlon

Further specification of location:

Muminabad

Comments:

270 ha

2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Indique o ano de início:

2010

2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Iniciativa/inovação local recente

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (regulation of water distribution, water conservation, conflict resolution)

To establish a responsible body, recognized by the government and accepted by the local people, to manage water related issues and to maintain as well as to improve conditions of the infrastructure in the local level.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The approach is addressing the problem connected with the use of the water resource. Incapability of the government to manage waters on the village level resulted in conflicts over water use, misusage of water and abundance of the infrastructure. This condition had a direct effect to productivity and to food security as a consequence.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Inibitivo

No funds available to maintain the infrastructure

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Annual membership fees

Quadro institucional
  • Inibitivo

No strong and effective mechanism to regulate irrigation water resources at the local level.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Establishment of the water users association at the local level and respresented by local people.

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Inibitivo

Unclear situation with regard to water use rights and obligations.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The condition that association was represented by the local leaders enlarged the trust among the population. During the general meetings local leaders of the association explained for what villages are paying and where money would be invested.

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

Association leaders

  • Especialistas em gestão sustentável da terra/consultor agrícola
  • Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)

Water Agency/VODHOZ

Caso várias partes interessadas foram envolvidas, indique a agência líder:

Association leaders

3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Participativo It was members of the local community, who thought of the idea and they approached the local water agency.
Planejamento Participativo Local leaders organized the meeting where all interested villagers participated.
Implementação Apoio externo Implementation was entirely through the local community.
Monitoramento/avaliação Nenhum
Research Nenhum

3.3 Fluxograma (se disponível)

Descrição:

Organizational chart showing the establishment set up of the Water User Association

Autor:

Sady Odinashoev

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • Somente usuários da terra (iniciativa própria)
Explique:

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by land users* alone (self-initiative / bottom-up)

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?

Sim

Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
  • Equipe de campo/consultores
Tipo de formação:
  • Em exercício
  • Reuniões públicas
  • Cursos

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?

Não

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, significativamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Financeiro
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação
  • Equipamento

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?

Sim

Comments:

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

area treated aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

area treated aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through measurements; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through observations; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were None monitored by project staff, government, land users through measurements; indicators: None

There were several changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: None

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?

Não

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • 10.000-100.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international: 80.0%; local government (district, county, municipality, village etc): 10.0%; local community / land user(s): 10.0%

5.2 Apoio financeiro/material concedido aos usuários da terra

Os usuários da terra receberam apoio financeiro/material para a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias?

Não

5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Equipamento
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Ferramentas Totalmente financiado
  • Construção
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Pedra Totalmente financiado
Madeira Totalmente financiado
  • Infraestrutura
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Estradas Totalmente financiado
Escolas Totalmente financiado
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
  • Pago em dinheiro

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?

Não

6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Increase of yield. Farmers receive more yield from the small plots.

A abordagem concedeu autonomia aos grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente
Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Since the certain mechanism of water management was developed, water disputes significantly reduced and productivity increased

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

6.2 Principal motivação dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra

  • Produção aumentada

to improve crop production

  • Lucro (lucrabilidade) aumentado, melhora da relação custo-benefício

to improve yield

  • Carga de trabalho reduzida
  • Consciência ambiental
  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

improvement of villagers' well-being, whose main income comes from the agriculture

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Sim

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Water management through such associations is of states' interest as well, and therefore state supports minilar initiatives.
Conflict resolution: Association leaders act as a conflict resolving body and due to their respectful position in the community, they are able to avoid serious conflicts.
Transparency: Association is initiated and regulated by the local leaders, therefore there is much more trust on them among water users.

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
sometimes it is difficult to collect money from water users.
membership fee is too low and not enough to make significant investment to maintanence of the infrstructure.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

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