Approaches

Cluster Level Pasture User Union [Tajikistan]

Чамъияти Чарогохистифодабарандагон дар сатхи кластер

approaches_3443 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 94%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

21/05/2014

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da gestão sustentável da terra

2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) at cluster level is consolidating several communities to jointly plan and implement pasture and livestock management related interventions. This approach is supporting to cover big area of pasture lands, which is used by several communities and do not have physical boundaries to define. Therefore joint planning of several communities at cluster level will help communities to meet the need of sustainable pasture and livestock management planning to improve their livelihoods.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) are legally recognized institutional structures under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan (Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on March 19, 2013, #951). Communities and individuals started the establishment of PUUs after the law passed on to organize themselves for better management of their pasture resources. Establishment of PUUs started with introducing development projects immediately after the law passed. The PUU approach had been tested at different levels starting from small units of pasture area, on village level and up to the sub-district level. Under ELMARL project for the purpose for the bigger environmental effects and coverage PUU was tested at cluster level, combining several community level pasture user groups (PUGs) with their representation at cluster level.
The main goal of this approach is to bring several communities under one legal structure for better management of pasture resources, which are interlinked in terms of physical boundaries and social aspects.
The project used participatory methods to bring several villages/communities under one umbrella in the framework of Governmental law on pastures. The planning process for the PUU starts with the first sector on stakeholder analysis, where the main actors are identified. The main stakeholders are community based organizations or village organizations, which also include livestock owners who become members of the PUU, land users of dehkan farms (peasant farms), which are the owners of the pasture/land resources, local governments and their related departments (e.g. land committee, agricultural department, environmental department).
Community based organizations/village organizations are community level structures, which come together to form their legal structure at higher levels for better management of pasture resources. Land/pasture users are the main actors which are responsible for day to day use of the pasture and implementation of technologies and local governments, that takes a leading role in distribution of land and facilitating the process of land use in the area. The majority of community members did like the approach when it was introduced and the purpose was explained, because it contributes to a more sustainable use of their resources. Only those livestock owners that own a big number of livestock are not willing to become part of the PUUs and to participate in the sustainable management of pasture resource. This is because they own big areas of pasture by themselves and are not interested to collaborate with the community.

2.3 Fotos da abordagem

General remarks regarding photos:

Livestock owners came together to discuss the possibility of establishing their own community level structure under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan with project experts to explain them the new law and advantages of creating their own institute.

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Central Asia/Tajikistan/Rasht Valley

Further specification of location:

Faizobod, Roghun, Lakhsh and sub-ordinate districts

Comments:

Under ELMARL project cluster level PUUs had been established in four districts of Rasht Valley, which are Faizobod, Roghun, Tavildara and Lakhsh.

2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada de início da abordagem:

less than 10 years ago (recently)

Comments:

PUUs are still functional in this area.

2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Iniciativa/inovação local recente

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

Support and empower legal structures with focus on pasture management and livestock development according to the Pasture Law of the Republic of Tajikistan.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Normas e valores sociais/culturais/religiosos
  • Propício

Traditionally communities are involved in the management of their pasture resources, previously based on traditional structure, therefore the proposed approach is socially and culturally applicable and well perceived by communities.

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Inibitivo

only project based, further depends on community and PUU leadership, how active they are

Quadro institucional
  • Propício

The PUU is a legal structure according to the pasture law.

Colaboração/coordenção de atores
  • Propício

All partners and stakeholders are involved in managing the PUU.

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Propício

gives rights to the PUU to own the pasture lands

Governança da terra (tomada de decisões, implementação e aplicação)
  • Propício

Once the land and pasture resources are owned by PUU they are legally enabled to make their own decisions on the use and management of the resources according to the existing laws and regulations.

Conhecimento sobre gestão sustentável da terra, acesso a suporte técnico
  • Propício

helps communities and PUU to implement diverse technologies in management and improvement of the pasture lands

Mercados (para comprar entradas, vender produtos) e preços
  • Inibitivo

Marketing issues are not targeted.

Carga de trabalho, disponibilidade de força de trabalho
  • Inibitivo

Because of the high volume of migration some of the management and leadership teams can migrate and hinder the availability of management. Youth is mainly in migration therefore hindering the availability of manpower.

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

members of PUU and livestock owners

are the main actors of the PUU, responsible for overall management of the PUU and day to day activities' implementation with regards to pasture use. They also responsible for the implementation of the pasture plan which is developed jointly with the support of the project technical team.

  • Organizações comunitárias

village organization, common interest groups, village technology groups

are direct partners of the PUU, which also mobilize communities to join and participate in the pasture management

  • Especialistas em gestão sustentável da terra/consultor agrícola

project technical team

well mainly responsible in development of the pasture management plan methodology, capacity building of the pasture users/PUU members and ensure compliance of technical aspects of pasture management with PUU members

  • Organização não governamental

locally registered Public Organization involved in environmental and natural resource management

in fundraising, introducing the PUU members with innovative technologies and approach

  • Governo local

all departments at local level involved in the management of natural resources like agriculture, environmental protection, land departments, committee of emergency and other

collaborates with PUU and empowers the sector to specify topics and lobby their interests at the district level

  • Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)

Land Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Committee on the Environmental protection

empower and lobby their interest at national level, guidance

  • Organização internacional

all existing in the country, including GIZ, Aga Khan Foundation, World Bank, European Commission, ACTED, Caritas etc.,

support with fund raising, provide guidance and exposure on best practices

3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Apoio externo PUU members, livestock owners, mobilization of people to come together, support project team with collecting information, participate in the capacity building campaigns
Planejamento Participativo PUU members, livestock owners, active participation in the development of pasture and livestock management plan, participate in the session
Implementação Automobilização PUU members and other livestock owners. After the pasture and livestock management plan is approved PUU members with support of the PUU management structure were supported with funding and they have implemented different interventions, like fencing of pasture areas, support livestock owners with seeds to grow fodder, income generating activities like beekeeping.
Monitoramento/avaliação Apoio externo The project team with support of the monitoring and evaluation specialist and technical staff conducted continuos support during the implementation phase.

3.3 Fluxograma (se disponível)

Descrição:

This is the organizational chart of the PUU, specifically those established at the cluster level with involvement of several communities. Members from each community are represented in the board and the board is selecting the management staff. The highest body as executive is the general meeting of the PUU, which consists of all members of the PUU.

Autor:

Zevarshoev Askarsho

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • todos os atores relevantes, como parte de uma abordagem participativa
Explique:

During the planning process all stakeholder participate and decide on which kind of action to implement, but separately pasture users are also actively implementing their traditional practices.

Especifique em que base foram tomadas as decisões:
  • Avaliação de conhecimento bem documentado de gestão sustentável de terra (tomada de decisão baseada em evidências)

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?

Sim

Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
Caso seja relevante, especifique gênero, idade, status, etnia, etc:

mixed, with special focus on equal participation of gender and balanced ages

Tipo de formação:
  • Em exercício
  • Áreas de demonstração
  • Reuniões públicas
  • Cursos
Assuntos abordados:

pasture management, accounting, proposal development, environmental land management

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?

Sim

Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
  • nas áreas dos usuários da terra
Descreva/comentários:

During visits to the site by the project team consisting of specialists, advisory service was provided to the PUU members. The project also involved specialists from universities and livestock institute who conducted trainings and also provided advisory services.

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, significativamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Descreva instituição, papéis e responsabilidades, membros, etc.

Pasture User Union is a legal institute established at local level, which is mainly involved in the sustainable use and management of pastures and livestock. Almost all livestock owners in the targeted zone become members of the PUU to

Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Financeiro
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação
  • Equipamento
Dê mais detalhes:

All three type of support were provided to the institute, starting from the establishment up to the development of their plan and implementation of this plan.

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?

Sim

Comments:

Continous monitoring of the project was made by the project team to ensure effective implementation of planned activities.

Caso afirmativo, esta documentação é destinada a ser utilizada para monitoramento e avaliação?

Sim

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?

Não

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • 2.000-10.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihood Project, implemented by the Committee on Environmental Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan

5.2 Apoio financeiro/material concedido aos usuários da terra

Os usuários da terra receberam apoio financeiro/material para a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, especifique tipo(s) de apoio, condições e fornecedor(es):

funding support to facilitate communities to establish their PUU and registration fee under the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Pasture Management

5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Equipamento
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Maquinário Totalmente financiado machinery, like tractors, was provided to the PUU for development of their pasture infrastrucutre
Ferramentas Parcialmente financiado funding for other interventions like establishment of veterinarian drug store, improvement of pasture etc.
  • Construção
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Madeira Parcialmente financiado funding for procurement of wood for construction of animal shed in the remote pasture
  • Infraestrutura
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Estradas Parcialmente financiado cost to rent bulldozer, cost for fuel for the machinery to clean and rehabilitate the road
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
  • Voluntário

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?

Não

5.5 Outros incentivos ou instrumentos

Foram utilizados outros incentivos ou instrumentos para promover a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, especifique:

Specialized training was provided for the PUU members on the new Pasture Law and community participation in the round table discussion on revision and providing feedback to improvement of pasture law organized by the Pasture Network Secretariat.

6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem concedeu autonomia aos usuários locais de terra, melhorou a participação das partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

First the approach was brought together under one structure to discuss the common issues, which relates to all involved stakeholder. Land users become the owner of legal structure under the law of the government, which empowered them to lobby their interest at the governmental level.

A abordagem propiciou a tomada de decisão baseada em evidências?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

during the process of pasture and livestock management plan development in a participatory manner, where youth and women have also participated

A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The approach lead to the development of the pasture and livestock management plan with a specific action plan for implementation. The implementation plan involves different technologies and approach to test and learn for dissemination and replication to other areas.

A abordagem melhorou a coordenação e a implementação economicamente eficiente da gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Since the approach brought together several communities at cluster level to manage their pasture resources, it required a lot of effort to coordinate the activities among each other in consultation with experts.

A abordagem mobilizou/melhorou o acesso aos recursos financeiros para implementação da gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

As a legal structure the PUU is eligible to apply for any available funding.

A abordagem aprimorou o conhecimento e as capacidades dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

After establishment of the PUU, a series of trainings and sharing of experiences were provided to the members to learn from best practices and test them in their area.

A abordagem aprimorou o conhecimento e as capacidades de outras partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Through establishment the PUUs their management as an institute conducted meeting with other involved stakeholders and explained them their structure. Other identified stakeholders, like land users from neighbor communities were also invited to the capacity building sessions and trainings.

A abordagem construiu/fortaleceu instituições, colaboração entre partes interessadas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

In the action plan of the PUU roles and responsibilities of direct involved stakeholders were defined and their roles to interact with other relevant institutions identified. The approach of participatory planning took all stakeholders interests into consideration.

A abordagem atenuou conflitos?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Several communities came together with all stakeholders to talk on the existing challenges and mitigate the possible conflict arising from the use of pasture resources.

A abordagem melhorou a igualdade de gêneros e concedeu autonomia a mulheres e meninas?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Women's roles in the management of livestock and pasture management were identified and taken into consideration to involve them in the decision making process.

A abordagem melhorou as questões de posse de terra/diretos do usuário que inibiam a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

PUU enabled the members to own certain amount of pasture land and have to go through certain procedures to improve the ownership over their land.

A abordagem aprimorou a capacidade dos usuários da terra de adaptar-se a mudanças climáticas/extremos e atenuar os desastres relacionados com o clima?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

PUU enabled land users and its members to get introduced to the best practices on improvment of pasture management, which also helps them to mitigate the climate change and prevention of possible disasters like landslide and mudflow which is common as a result of pasture degradation

A abordagem resultou em emprego, oportunidades de renda?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

With establishment of PUU three people already became official employees of the institute and other got income through implementation of intervention. Once the pasture condition improves, the livestock productivity will also improve and will increase income.

6.2 Principal motivação dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra

  • Produção aumentada

increase pasture productivity and livestock products

  • Degradação do solo reduzida

PUU to contribute to improve ownership over land resource and prevent overgrazing in the realm of degradation protection

  • Riscos de desastre reduzido

Pasture degradation usually is mainly caused by land slides and mudflows in this area. Once the condition of pastures is improved, it will also prevent natural hazards.

  • Consciência ambiental

As the project mainly focuses on environmental land management the approach considers also improvement of pasture condition to contribute to environmental protection.

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Sim
Caso afirmativo, descreva como:

The PUU is a legal structure according to the law of the country and empowers the communities to become owner of their pasture resources. Through coordination from the local government there is continuous supervision on the performance of the structure, which contribute to its sustainability.

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
can participate in the decision making, the communities own the resources, have their own structure
better opportunities for getting access to financial resources
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
owned by communities, legally registered according to the official law on pasture of the country
as a legal and community based structure recognized taking into consideration of all stakeholders and involves women and youth into decision making

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Comparing to other PUUs established only at one community level it is a more complicated structure and difficult to manage. empower the community and the PUU leadership in management and leadership skills, more capacity building campaigns
Pasture resources owned by separate dekhkan farms, which are also legal structure according to the law More facilitation processes should be applied to support and empower the PUU to become the full and only owners of the pasture resource.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

through direct interviews with the Implementing Agency technical experts and field facilitators

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

1

7.3 Links para informação relevante que está disponível online

Title/ description:

Pasture Management Networking Platform (PMNP)

URL:

https://pasture.klink.asia/dms/documents/groups/796?page=2

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