Technologies

Rehabilitation of degraded lands [Ethiopia]

Yetegoda Meret Magegem (Amharic)

technologies_1070 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 69%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Activities that help maintain the productive potentials of soils through prevention and reduction of erosion, enhancing of rehabilitation rate by practicing measures such as microbasins, trench, eyebrow terrace, terraces, pitting and plantation of trees.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The SWC technology comprises a combination of measures, which include agronomic, vegetative, structural and management measures. This means that in implementing the SWC technology combination of measures such as contour cultivation, grass strips, soil and stone bunds, area closure and improved grazing are applied in integration to rehabilitate degraded lands and restore their productivity. The purpose is to improve food security by reducing erosion and enhance the productivity of land by planting useful trees and fodder species. Unproductive land is changed to productive land by the practicing of the technology. The SWC technology is continously maintained and improved to meet the standards and qulity such that erosion is minimized. The technology is suitable to degraded and unproductive lands which were abondoned as result of low productivity and were previously under cultivation or grazing land. Closure of the area is followed by vegetative and structural measures to speed up the recovery / regeneration rate.

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Ethiopia

Region/ State/ Province:

SNNPR

Further specification of location:

Alaba special woreda

Comentários:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 60 km2.

Some of the SWC technology areas are well rehabilitated and the remaining sites are partially treated, because these are being newly started sites.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

It is introduced technology.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrossilvipecuária

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Cultura de árvores e arbustos
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - rye
  • cereals - sorghum
  • legumes and pulses - other
  • pepper, teff, chat, haricot beans, wheat
  • vetiver, elephant grass
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • avocado
  • citrus
  • coffee, open grown
  • mango, mangosteen, guava
  • Eucalyptus, sesbania, grevillea, acacia
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Sep Second longest growing period in days: 120 Second longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Sep

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

Produtos e serviços:
  • Madeira
  • Lenha
  • Frutas e nozes
  • Conservação/proteção da natureza
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Improper landuse, defforestation, overgrazing, lack of action to control erosion.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): lack of awarness, traditional way of ploughing, lack of technolog on SWC

Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: open grazing is practiced

Grazingland comments: Nowadays closing a small individual plots and practicing cut and carrying system is being popular among land users.

Plantation forestry: replacing natural forests

Problems / comments regarding forest use: Forest/woodlands are mainly communal, so, replanting forests is undertaken by the community. Individual forests/woodlands are very few and small in size since there is a shortage of land for forests and tree plantation.

Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, fruits and nuts, nature conservation / protection

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Haricot bean is planted after maize is planted and has allowed some height.

Constraints of infrastructure network (roads, railways, pipe lines, power lines)

Constraints of Stone excavation (quarrying has caused a lott of damage on land.)

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada
  • Medidas de curva de nível
  • Colheita de água

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado
Comentários:

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

SNNPR

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: increase of infiltration, water harvesting / increase water supply

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, increase / maintain water stored in soil, reduction in wind speed, improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility

Better crop cover
Material/ species: teff, wheat
Quantity/ density: 10,000,000
Remarks: broad casting

Early planting
Material/ species: maize, sorghum
Quantity/ density: 60,000
Remarks: row planting and broad casting

Relay cropping
Material/ species: maize-haricot bean
Quantity/ density: maize-hari
Remarks: row planting

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: maize and haricot bean
Quantity/ density: 120,000
Remarks: row planting

Contour planting / strip cropping
Material/ species: maize, sorghum
Quantity/ density: 50,000
Remarks: strip cropping

Green manure
Material/ species: legumes
Quantity/ density: 100,000
Remarks: broad casting

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: leaves, cow dung

Mineral (inorganic) fertilizers
Material/ species: DAP, UreaTillag

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 10,000,000
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1.5
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.25

Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 40000
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 111
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 40000

Trees/ shrubs species: sesbania, grevillea, acacia

Fruit trees / shrubs species: mango, avocado, orange

Perennial crops species: coffee, chat

Grass species: vetiver, elephant grass

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 8.00%

Diversion ditch/ drainage
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 50
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.8
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 80
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.8
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 80

Terrace: forward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 50
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 10
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1

Terrace: backward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 50
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 10
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1

Bund/ bank: level
Spacing between structures (m): 40
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.8
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1

Bund/ bank: graded
Spacing between structures (m): 20
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.8
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 8%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: degraded land to forest land

Major change in timing of activities: structure in dry season, plantation in rainy season.

Other type of management: change of management / intensity level - protection of the closed area by site guards.

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Birr

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

8,6

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

0.70

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Seed collection (grass, trees) dry season
2. Seed bed preparation on set of rain
3. Sawing & Planting rainy season
4. Site selection dry season
5. participatory planning dry season
6. Area closing dry season
7. Trench, microbasin bund construction dry season
8. Plantation rain season
9. Site selection for closure area dry period
10. Closing the degraded land dry season
11. Construction of structural measures onset of rains and dry seasons

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 387,0 387,0 26,0
Equipamento Tools ha 1,0 85,0 85,0
Material vegetal Seeds ha 1,0 33,0 33,0
Material vegetal Seedlings ha 1,0 5,0 5,0
Material de construção Stone ha 1,0 2,0 2,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 512,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 59,53
Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 60 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Tillage/plough dry season / annual
2. Compost making and application before dry season / annual
3. Sawing and planting / each cropping season
4. Plant protection wet season / annual
5. Harvesting dry season / each cropping season
6. Replanting rainy season /once a year
7. Weeding after rains /once a year
8. Cutting the matured trees dry season /once a year
9. Replanting rainy season/once a year
10. Reconstruction of structures dry season/once a year
11. Planting trees rainy season / once a year
12. plant and harvest grass / before and after rains
13. Replanting / once a year
14. Terench and structural measures stablization with plantation / once in a year

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 46,7 46,7 5,0
Equipamento Tools ha 1,0 3,0 3,0 60,0
Material vegetal Seeds ha 1,0 6,6 6,6
Material vegetal Seedlings ha 1,0 3,6 3,6 10,0
Material de construção Stone ha 1,0 41,4 41,4 2,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 101,3
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 11,78
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: hoe, shovel, wheel barrow, hammer

The cost is calculated for PD/person days on a hectar basis

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Tools and transport facilities (motorcycles), fuel and food grain.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

850-950 mm

Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido
  • Semiárido

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Altitudinal zone: 1501-2000 m a.s.l. (ranked 1) and 2001-2500 m a.s.l. (1700-2200m a.s.l., ranked 2)
Slopes on average: Gentle (ranked 1) and moderate (ranked 2, about 70% of the land is on a slope of 2-8%)

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil texture: Coarse/light (ranked1) and medium (ranked 2, sandy loam)
Soil fertility: High
Soil drainage/infiltration: Good (well drained)
Soil water storage capacity: Very low (because it is sandy loam soil)

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Pobre
  • Média
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 3% - 4%
10% of the land users are very rich.
25% of the land users are rich.
40% of the land users are average wealthy.
25% of the land users are poor.
5% of the land users are poor.
Off-farm income specification: Land users who practice SWC measures get better production. Their incomes has increased compared to those who have not applied SWC.
Market orientation of cropland production system: subsistence (self-supply, part of the production is sold at local market), mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Market orientation of grazing land production system: subsistence (self-supply, fodder plant for milk cow), mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Market orientation of forest production system: subsistence (self-supply, tree plantation on individual plots ), mixed (subsistence/ commercial), commercial/market (plantation of a community forests)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
Comentários:

Cropland: average cultivated land is about 1.5 ha/household
Grazing land: not more than 0.125 ha on average

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de madeira

Diminuído
Elevado

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

decrease of grazing land

Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Impactos socioculturais

Instituições comunitárias

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido

Instituições nacionais

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

75

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

25

Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Controle de praga/doença

Diminuído
Elevado
Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Velocidade do vento

Elevado
Diminuído

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Caudal confiável e estável em período seco

Reduzido
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

structural measures

Cheias de jusante

Elevado
Reduzido

Sedimentação a jusante

Elevado
Diminuído

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

52000

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comentários:

90% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

46800 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

10% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

5200 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: survey results

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Nowadays land users have better understanding on SWC technologies, so they protect their farm land from erosion with vegetation.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
SWC knoweldge is gained

How can they be sustained / enhanced? through training and practical works
additional income is created

How can they be sustained / enhanced? diversification of SWC measures with in the same plot
group work is encouraged/introduced

How can they be sustained / enhanced? strengthening group formation
food value has increased

How can they be sustained / enhanced? from vegetables and fruits
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
degraded lands are rehabilitated and covered with plantation.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? through increased participatory planning approach
crop production has increased.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? apply more combined technologies to enhance production
wood production has increased

How can they be sustained / enhanced? planting multipurpose plant species increased
extensive grazing is changed to intensive grazing

How can they be sustained / enhanced? to some extent number of animals are reduced
the community is aware of the technilogy

How can they be sustained / enhanced? land users construct SWC technologies on their farm land by their own

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
shortage of grazing land use cut and carry system
destruction of crop by wild animals making farmers group to protect them
shortage of incentives practicing more community participation works.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

Links and modules

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