Technologies

Animal Draft Zero-Tillage [Zambia]

Direct Planting

technologies_1140 - Zambia

Completeness: 73%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Katoweji Alfred

Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust

Zambia

SLM specialist:

Ndandula Sharon

Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust

Zambia

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Golden Valley agricultural research trust (Golden Valley agricultural research trust) - Zambia

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Participatory Research and Development
approaches

Participatory Research and Development [Zambia]

This is a collaborative process between researchers and farmers for developing and adapting new technologies that focus on incorporating the perspectives and inputs from the farmers into the development process.

  • Compilador/a: Arthur Chomba

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Animal draft zero-till involves the use of an animal drawn mechanical planter to plant directly in untilled soil to minimize soil disturbance and leave a cover of crop residues to conserve the soil and water.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Zero-tillage takes advantage of the beneficial effects of biological processes to loosen the soil and to improve fertility. The organic matter from these processes aggregate the soil while the movement of soil organisms like worms and termites loosen the soil. This is called biological tillage and replaces mechanical tillage. The untilled soil surface covered by residues will require a planter specialized to plant in these conditions. In a sense, adopting zero-till does actually require a zero-till planter. The development of the strip-planter has made zero-till a viable option for animal draft farmers, which until now was not possible due to the unavailability or high cost of zero-till planters. The new planter is both cheap and easy to manufacture locally. The planter uses a narrow tine to open a planting furrow and seed/fertilizer is metered by vertically rotating plates. The planter is pulled by oxen and can plant rows of 75cm or 90cm rows with an intra-row which is determined by the seed plate used (3, 4, 5,…… seeds/m). The planting technology needs to be complemented with sound residue cover and weeding management practices.

Purpose of the Technology: The planter enables planting and fertilizing in untilled soil so that the soil residue cover and soil structure are preserved and can be used sustainably. The protective soil cover reduces evaporation and enhances infiltration while the improved soil structure and organic matter content increases soil water storage making zero tillage an important drought mitigating strategy. The immediate benefits of adopting zero-till are the possibility to plant a bigger area quickly and in time as well as the reduced soil erosion.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The first step in establishing zero-till is to assess the soil condition and levels of degradation. Where possible tests should be carried out but where not, the farmer needs to start on a small plot to check if there will be yield reduction from not tilling the soil. Where soils are severely degraded, an establishment phase should be embarked on where reduced tillage is practiced until the soil structure has recovered sufficiently to support crop growth without tillage. Liming acidic soils followed by a final ploughing will be required in the first year to correct the soil pH which otherwise will be difficult to correct once conservation tillage has been established. The organic matter levels need to be increased by increasing the amount of residues produced by the crop (i.e. the yields) and retaining these as soil cover. The next establishment activity is the purchase of the planter unit. Maintenance activities include planting and fertilizing in the same operation and weeding. Weeding will have to involve herbicide use to handle increased weed densities implying that spraying will become a major operation. In addition to the normal conventional inputs, herbicides will also become a major input and cost.

Natural / human environment: Zero-till has been applied in a wide range of bio-physical environments but mostly by the large scale farmers. The unavailability and high cost of specialized zero-till planter for small-scale farming has resulted in low adoption rates. The development of the Magoye Planter creates new opportunities for this practice. The farmer has to have sufficient knowledge to assess the soil condition and decide if is too degraded for zero-till or how long the transitional phase should be. Literacy is essential as the farmers will have to learn new approaches on weed control, pest control and crop rotations and adapt practices to suit his/her specific conditions.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Zambia

Region/ State/ Province:

Zambia/Southern Province

Further specification of location:

Mazabuka/Magoye

Comentários:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.56 km2.

Zero-Till with the Magoye planter technology was introduced in 2011 and is only in its second season of use. Only four farmers have adopted the technology although it has not yet been officially launched and promoted.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

Development of the Magoye planter began in 2008 in response to farmers’ feedback on the Magoye Ripper. Farmers started adopting the technology in 2011

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • Annual cropping is the main source of livelihood.
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 135Longest growing period from month to month: mid Nov to end of March

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
  • Nearly half of the farmers own cattle but these are not sold regularly, only for school fees and ceremonies. Livestock is grazing on crop residues
Comentários:

Livestock density (if relevant):
1-10 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Loss of soil structure and low soil fertility
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Droughts and dry spell

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
  • A4: Tratamento do subsolo
  • A5: Gestão de sementes, variedades melhoradas
  • A6: Residue management
  • A7: Others
A3: Differentiate tillage systems:

A 3.1: No tillage

Comentários:

Specification of other agronomic measures: Zero till, Crop residue
Type of agronomic measures: early planting, mulching, manure / compost / residues, mineral (inorganic) fertilizers, soil conditioners (lime, gypsum), zero tillage / no-till

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pk: quebra e ressecamento
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bl: perda da vida do solo
Comentários:

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Overploughing, soil nutrient mining), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Monocropping), overgrazing (Overgrazing of crop residues), poverty / wealth (Charcoal burning, under application of fertilizer), inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …) (high cost of fertilizer)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Charcoal burning), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (Overgrazing of crop residues), droughts, land tenure (Communal land overexploited), education, access to knowledge and support services (inadequate extension staff), governance / institutional (lack of credit facilities)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Previnir degradação do solo
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
Comentários:

Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Planting lines are done at a depth of 8-12cm with inter row of 75 or 90cm. The width of the open furrow is 5-10cm wide. Planting rows are done across the slope to reduce runoff, these planting rows are done when the soil is moist during the rainy season and planting is done at the same time with land preparation. Farmers in Monze have combined ripping and zero till together. In the dry season they rip with the Magoye Ripper or GART Planter and later when the soil is moist use a zero till implement to plant.

Location: Magoye. Mazabuka/Southern Province/Zambia

Date: 2014-06-29

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (This is a new technology and the extension staff must be able to help farmers troubleshoot and adapt the technology to local conditions.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (The farmers have to adopt new soil management practices, crop rotations and adapt the weeding approaches to complement the planting technology)

Main technical functions: improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, improvement of ground cover, improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater, water harvesting / increase water supply, improvement of water quality, buffering / filtering water

Early planting
Material/ species: maize
Quantity/ density: 44,000 pla
Remarks: 25cm intra row by 75cm

Mulching
Material/ species: crop residues
Quantity/ density: 3ton/ha
Remarks: uniformly spread

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: crop residues
Quantity/ density: 3ton/ha
Remarks: uniformly spread

Mineral (inorganic) fertilizers
Material/ species: basal and top dressing
Quantity/ density: 400kg/ha
Remarks: spot application

Soil conditioners (lime, gypsum)
Material/ species: lime
Quantity/ density: 1ton/ha
Remarks: broadcast

Autor:

Silenga Wamunyima, Box 670577, Mazabuka, Zambia

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Kwacha

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

5,0

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

2.40

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Purchase a magoye planter
2. Purchase a knapsack sprayer
Comentários:

Life span of the magoye planter: 15 years
Life span of the knapsack sprayer: 5 years

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Equipamento Magoye Planter piece 1,0 500,0 500,0 100,0
Equipamento Knapsack sprayer piece 1,0 80,0 80,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 580,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 116,0
Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Slashing, spreading residues May-June every year after harvest
2. Liming Nov - Dec every 3years
3. Planting and fertilizing Nov-Dec at onset of rain
4. Chemical weeding 3 times per growing season
5. Harvesting May-June

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Slashing, spreading residues person days 8,0 2,5 20,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Liming person days 2,0 2,5 5,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Chemical weeding person days 24,0 1,0 24,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Harvesting person days 8,0 2,5 20,0 100,0
Equipamento Animal traction for planting and fertilizing ha 1,0 40,0 40,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seeds kg 20,0 2,5 50,0 100,0
Material vegetal Fertilizer kg 400,0 0,8 320,0 100,0
Material vegetal Herbicides l 5,0 6,0 30,0 100,0
Material vegetal Lime ton 1,0 42,0 42,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 551,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 110,2
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: The Magoye planter

Calculation are for 1ha of maize under strip tillage based conservation tillage and costs are for the Zambia situation in Magoye as of August 2012.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

The weed control method is the main determinate factor depending on whether the farmer uses hand hoe or herbicides. Weed densities are higher in unploughed fields increasing the labour requirements/costs by a factor of about 5 if hand weeding is used instead of herbicides. Another major cost is that of fertilizer which makes up about half the cost hence the total cost will vary significantly depending on fertilizer cost.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

Thermal climate class: subtropics. 3 distinct seasons – summer, winter and one rainy season

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

> 50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Gênero:
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Difference in the involvement of women and men: The technology is applied mostly by men since most households are male headed and animal traction operation are reserved for men

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 3% - 4%

8% of the land users are rich and own 15% of the land (own more than 10 cattle).
8% of the land users are average wealthy and own 15% of the land (own between 5 and 10 cattle).
16% of the land users are poor and own 20% of the land (own less than 5 cattle).
68% of the land users are poor and own 40% of the land (do not own cattle).

Off-farm income specification: sale of rainfed crops makes up about half of their income, the remainder coming from sale of livestock, petty trading, hiring out labour and remittances

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala
Comentários:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 1-2 ha, 2-5 ha, 5-15 ha, 5-15 ha, 15-50 ha, 15-50 ha, 50-100 ha

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, não intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Indivíduo
  • Land is apportioned by traditional leaders
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Land is apportioned by traditional leaders

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado

Risco de falha de produção

Elevado
Diminuído

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

2-3ha

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

>10

Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento

Diminuído
Elevado

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído

Impactos socioculturais

Oportunidades de lazer

Reduzido
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Qualidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado

Colheita/recolhimento de água

Reduzido
Melhorado

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído

Evaporação

Elevado
Diminuído
Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído

Ressecamento/selagem do solo

Elevado
Reduzido

Compactação do solo

Elevado
Reduzido

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado

Salinidade

Elevado
Diminuído

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Emissão de carbono e gases de efeito estufa

Elevado
Diminuído

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Disponibilidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado

Cheias de jusante

Elevado
Reduzido

Poluição de água subterrânea/rio

Elevado
Reduzido

Danos em áreas vizinhas

Elevado
Reduzido

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase não conhecido

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Tempestade de vento local não conhecido
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) não bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

Timely and quicker planting enables larger areas to be planted and with less labour in the short term. Improved soil structure and soil fertility leads to higher yields and better resilience to droughts in the long term

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • casos isolados/experimental
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comentários:

4 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: The Magoye planter has not yet been officially launched or promoted and the farmers currently using the technology heard of it by word of mouth and insisted on purchasing

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
There has been numerous inquiries to purchase the Magoye planter even before it can be promoted

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Enables early planting

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Plant in with the first rain
Quicker planting enables the planting of larger areas

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Plant the seed and fertilize in one operation
reduced workload

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage minimum tillage
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Enables early planting

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Plant in November with the first heavy rain
Quicker planting enables the planting of larger areas

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Use herbicides because without them, the capacity to weed will limit the production capacity
Preserves soil cover and reduces soil disturbance

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Training in residue management and zero till

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The purchase price of the Magoye planter is quite high Subsidize the implement
Excessive weeds and lack of information on herbicide use More training on herbicide use
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The purchase price for the planter is on the higher side making it affordable only to the larger small-scale farmers the price is likely to go down when the planter is mass produced
difficult to control weeds in the absence of herbicides use herbicides

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Social-economic analysis of conservation agriculture in southern Africa, FAO, 2011

Available from where? Costs?

FAO

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Conservation farming in Zambia, Steven Haggblade, Gelson Tembo, October 2003

Available from where? Costs?

Indaba project, Michigan state university

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Conservation farming in Zambia, Conservation farming unit (CFU), 2011

Available from where? Costs?

cfu@zamnet.zm

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