Technologies

Agroforestry land use in bench terraces with cut-off and infiltration ditches and Napier grass strips. [Kenya]

technologies_1159 - Kenya

Completeness: 78%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:

F. K. Nyamu Jospeh

WRUA Sabasaba

Kenya

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO Food and Agriculture Organization) - Italy

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

A combination of agricultural (e.g. intercropping, mulching, minimum tillage), vegetative (e.g. Napier grass strips, trees planting) and structural (e.g. ditches, bench terracing) measures which aim to maximise the overall yield in a sustainable manner (e.g. reduction of soil erosion and increasing the soil quality).

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The land of the farmer is of 3 acres: 2 acres to plant maize (Zea mays) intercropped with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with several trees species: Mangoes, Avocadoes, Bananas, Grevillea and Makadamia and half acre for coffee plantation with Bananas and half with Napier grass production for fodder (to feed cows). To increase and fasten the grass growth, manure is applied twice a year, before the rainy season (around February and September), while mulching is practiced under Banana trees every season. Minimum tillage is applied to reduce soil disturbance and to increase water use efficiency by minimizing direct evaporation, increasing infiltration and water recharge (Liniger, 1991) especially during dry seasons, which results in better crop yields.

For timber production Grevillea trees are planted scattered overall the land and on the edge of the river for demarcation (environmental role in stabilizing the soil against erosive forces).
Concerning the structural measures, the farmer constructed has built 14 bench terraces, six of them were designed to plant cash crops (coffee); each terrace is characterized by a ditch to cut off the drainage and collect water and nutrients; they are also used as paths to facilitate transportation and farm operations. Ditches are both drainage and infiltration types and are excavated along the contour.

Purpose of the Technology: Beans and maize are cultivated for home consumption but partially (about 20%-4 bags of maize and half bag of beans) also for commercial purposes. Coffee is harvested twice a year, with a production of about 500 kg per season; the coffee is sold at 45 Kenyan Shillings (KSh) per kg (SL-28-arabica varieties). Indeed, the farmer is interested in cultivating the certified and improved variety called Ruiru 11 which is generally disease resistant, easy to maintain (less expensive) with a modest risk of pests (according to the farmer). Grevillea timber is sold twice a year, only trees of 1.5 feet in diameter (about 45 cm), at about 80 KSh per feet. Beside the commercial role of Grevillea, when sufficiently grown these trees lead to a reduction of the wind speed, protect the intercrops and provide mulching material to be used over banana trees. The deep roots of mature Grevillea are not in competition with the crops for soil and water, instead they enhance infiltration (Otengi, 2007). Makadamia will be used to produce cooking oil, while bananas, avocados and mangoes are fruits collected for the local markets. Napier grass is cultivated to stabilize the ditches and for fodder production.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: There is a high initial input (mainly labour) needed to create ditches and terraces and for planting crops is required. The vegetative and structural measures require a labour intensive management during the year, for example maintenance is necessary after each rainy season to repair ditches and to rebuild terraces (e.g. because of the accumulation of soil and organic matter in the pits and ditches). Concerning Napier grass, labour is employed regularly for weed control, to cut grass for fodder and every three seasons to replace and replant the grass because it becomes less productive. Concerning trees, in the Agroforestry systems, canopies of Mango and Avocado trees shade the soil reducing evapotranspiration and therefore improving soil water storage. On the other hand, regular pruning is needed when the shadow effect obstructs photosynthesis and therefore growth of the crops planted below (maize and beans). Pruning of branches is carried out also for firewood. Furthermore, a common practice is Grevillea root pruning to conserve soil moisture (Otengi, 2007) and to reduce competition for nutrients during the growing season. Indeed, the farmer explained how superficial roots may interfere with the Banana root system and to cut them he has created small trenches. Harvesting is carried out twice during the year for both cereals and coffee.

Natural / human environment: The area is characterized by rolling to hilly slopes, therefore it is exposed to erosion and land degradation. The combination of trees with mixed crops is adopted to maximise productivity and at the same time to prevent degradation by increasing the vegetative cover.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Kenya

Region/ State/ Province:

Kenya

Further specification of location:

Muthithi location-Kagurumo sublocation-Gatwamikwa village

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

0,0121

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0,1 km2 (10 ha)
Comentários:

About 1.21 ha (3 acres).
The area accounts for the land owned and cultivated by the farmer. According to the interviewee from the Ministry of Agriculture, on average farmers in Saba Saba sub-catchment own 1 acre of land (Elemans, 2011).

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • Como parte do sistema tradicional (>50 anos)
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The technology has been started by the father of the farmer about 70 years ago. His initiative has been developed and improved over time thanks also to the support of the MoA extension officers.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrossilvipecuária

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Cultura de árvores e arbustos
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • fodder crops - grasses
  • legumes and pulses - beans
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • banana/plantain/abaca
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • avocado
  • mango, mangosteen, guava
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • coffee
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 122Longest growing period from month to month: from about March to JuneSecond longest growing period in days: 61Second longest growing period from month to month: from about October to November

Is intercropping practiced?

Sim

Pastagem

Pastagem

Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
  • cattle
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

Type of tree:
  • Grevillea robusta
Comentários:

Trees/ shrubs species: Grevillea, Coffee
Fruit trees / shrubs species: Persea americana (avocado), Musa sapientum (banana/plantain), Mangifera indica (Mango), Macadamia tetraphylla (nuts)
Grass species: Pennisetum pyramidalis (Napier grass or elephant grass)

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Soil erosion and nutrient leaching which could drain into the river (Fig. 17).
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The most important limiting factor to the crop and fodder production remains water: not only related to the weather conditions (e.g. shorter and delayed rainy seasons) but due to the lack of a proper irrigation systems, to minimize the water losses and time. Furthermore, soil has been considered 'not good', because does not hold enough water due to the slope of the land.

Livestock density: < 1 LU/km2
Fodder for 2 cows, from Napier grass

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrofloresta
Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S1: Terraços
  • S4: Valas de nível, fossos
Comentários:

Type of agronomic measures: mulching, legume inter-planting, manure / compost / residues, minimum tillage
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -graded strips

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Hp: declínio da qualidade de água de superfície
Comentários:

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Poor soil management practices), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Poor vegetation cover, mainly herbaceous), disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff) (Land use: cropland), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (From gentle to hilly slope)
Secondary causes of degradation: Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (Especially during wet seasons: March-June and October-November)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Previnir degradação do solo
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Detailed overview of the Agroforestry system in a bench terrace with infiltration (retention) and cut off (drainage) ditches. Along them, strips of Napier grass on both sides.

Location: Upper Saba saba river. Kagurumo in Muthithi location

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), improvement of water quality, buffering / filtering water, increase of biomass (quantity)

Mulching
Material/ species: Organic residues around Banana trees
Quantity/ density: undefined

Legume inter-planting
Quantity/ density: 3bags270kg

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: Manure from two cows
Quantity/ density: 8 tonnes
Remarks: for 1 year

Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 400 grass per2lines strip
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): few cm
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.4
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.6-1

Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): about 80

Trees/ shrubs species: Grevillea, Coffee

Fruit trees / shrubs species: Persea americana, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Macadamia tetraphylla

Grass species: Pennisetum pyramidalis (Napier grass or elephant grass)

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20-25%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 15%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 5-8%

Diversion ditch/ drainage
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 8-13
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6-1

Retention/infiltration ditch/pit, sediment/sand trap
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 8-13
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6-1

Terrace: forward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 12-15

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5-8 (moderate) (Fig.4-7Annex3)%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 5%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 25-30%

Autor:

D'Aietti Laura

Data:

02/11/2012

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Kenyan Schellings

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

85,9

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

2.00

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Digging holes and planting Coffee seedlings (20 KSh per plant)
2. Digging holes (1 feet ×1 feet) and planting trees (seedlings)- 4 days ×5 persons at Ksh 200.e.g. the main work consist of digging small pits for bananas (300 plants)
3. Establishment of the infiltration ditches and cutoff drains (total 5). 3p.d. (200 Ksh *3) each. Each season: during dry season
4. Establishment of the retention ditches with bench terraces (tot.8): 2 p.d., 250 Ksh per day Each season: during dry season
5. Purchase cows
Comentários:

Life span of the cows: Several years

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Digging holes and planting seedlings person/day 20,0 2,3 46,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Infiltration ditches person/day 1,0 1277,0 1277,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Establishment of the infiltration ditches and cutoff drains (total 5) person/day 15,0 2,333 35,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra stablishment of the retention ditches with bench terraces (tot.8) person/day 16,0 2,9375 47,0 100,0
Equipamento Cow pieces 2,0 349,0 698,0
Material vegetal Seedlings Mango pieces 10,0 0,2 2,0 100,0
Material vegetal Coffee seedlings pieces 250,0 0,464 116,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seedlings Avocado pieces 12,0 0,25 3,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seedlings Macadamia pieces 8,0 0,25 2,0 100,0
Material vegetal Grevillea pieces 50,0 0,12 6,0 100,0
Outros cows animal 2,0 349,0 698,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 2930,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 34,11
Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 6 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Minimum tillage and planting maize and beans 2 times in a year
2. Harvesting maize/beans (around Feb/March and Ag/Sept) 2 times in a year
3. Feeding cows on daily basis (normally 3 times a day): 200 Ksh is the price of 1 labour to feed the cows with lunch, for 6 days daily basis
4. Preparation and application of manure 2 times in a year
5. Digging planting holes and planting grass 2 times (because they get 'old') or 1 half year, depending on the conditions
6. Maintenance of the grass (weed control and cutting Napier grass/repairing and collecting fodder) Every season (March/Sept); cutting Napier: 2times in a season
7. Clearing the tree for selling timber (the price depends also of the use of the chainsaw (or saw) or not -(considering 4 trees at the time) - with machine operator When in need of cash (not regularly), not less than 5 years after planting
8. Prepare manure and feeding cows on daily basis (normally 3 times a day): 200 Ksh is the price of 1 labour to feed the cows with lunch, for 6 days (7200 for 6 months) Every season
9. Pruning branches/roots and let them dry for firewood- (considering 4 trees at the time) 3 persons days- 200Ksh Every 3 seasons (and when shortage of firewood)
10. Mulching Twice in the year on Bananas
11. Harvesting coffee Twice in the year
12. Distribute manure on Napier grass, also in the pits 2 times
13. Repairing the ditches and remove excess of soil/leaves accumulated during the rainy season After rains (every season)
14. Rebuilt repair terraces 3 times per year

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Minimum tillage and planting maize and beans person/days 15,0 1,5333 23,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Harvesting maize/beans person/days 10,0 1,2 12,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Feeding cows and preparing the manure on daily basis person/days 312,0 0,166666 52,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Preparation and application of manure person/days 2,0 2,5 5,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seeds Maize kg 10,0 2,3 23,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seeds Beans kg 5,0 2,0 10,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seedlings grass per trench 200,0
Outros Labour: Digging planting holes and planting grass person/days 5,0 1,8 9,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Maintenance of the grass (weed control and cutting Napier grass/repairing and collecting fodder) person/days 3,0 1,66666 5,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Clearing the tree for selling timber (the price depends also of the use of the chainsaw (or saw) or not -(considering 4 trees at the time) - with machine operator person/days 1,0 8,0 8,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Repairing the ditches and remove excess of soil/leaves accumulated during the rainy season person/days 2,0 2,5 5,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Rebuilt repair terraces person/days 5,0 1,8 9,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 161,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 1,87
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: panga, fork djembe, hoes, shovel, fork djembe, panga, saw, shovels, fork djembe

The costs has been computed during the period of the field visit and include all the costs for the establishment and the maintenance of the different measures (structural, agronomic and vegetative), for 3 acre of land.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

In the farmer's opinion, the main constrains are the costs carried out to maintain the structural measures described. Water instead become the limiting environmental factor during dry season.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: subtropics. June, July and August

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

> 50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • >50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Média
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
Off-farm income specification: The farmer is rich because he owns 3 acre of land and livestock, assets (electricity) which are above the average standards of the community. No family food insecure issues during all year, and he was a teacher.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, não intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
Comentários:

Water use rights depend on the use: open access for drinking and domestic uses.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de madeira

Diminuído
Elevado
Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência

Reduzido
Melhorado

Situação de grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos

Agravado
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído

Evaporação

Elevado
Diminuído
Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Disponibilidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado

Sedimentação a jusante

Elevado
Diminuído

Capacidade de tamponamento/filtragem

Reduzido
Melhorado

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase não conhecido

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Tempestade de vento local bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca não bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido não conhecido

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comentários:

1% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Agroforestry (dispersed trees on cropland) and intercropping:
The technology is simple to adopt and provides a sustainable land management with a diversified source of income/ food supply.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Implementation could focus on the increase of species: Jaetzold et al. (1982) underlines the positive impacts of the use of biomass from Mucuna, Crotalaria, Tithonia, Calliandra and Leucanean hedges/trees for soil fertility improvements, increasing grain yields. Crop rotation and leaving crop residues on the ground could further help increasing the production.
Napier grass has been used for different purposes:
e.g. ditch stabilization, fodder production.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Other herbaceous vegetation could also be planted:
e.g. Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower),an excellent green manure and medicinal plant.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The amount of work required to carry out all the activities is too much.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The technologies in place require regular maintenance especially during rainy seasons.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Jaetzold R., and Schmidt H., 1983. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information. Vol. 2.Part B: Central Kenya.

Available from where? Costs?

http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/07-1284.pdf

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Jaetzold R., Schmidt H., Hornetz B., Shisanya C., 1982. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information. West Kenya, Subpart A2. Nyanza Province.

Available from where? Costs?

http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/07-1284.pdf

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Liniger HP (1991). Water conservation for rainfall farming in the semi-arid Footzones northwest of Mt. Kenya (Laikipia highlands). Consequence on the water balance and the soil productivity. Laikipia/Mt. Kenya PaperD-3, Nairobi, Kenya & Bern, Switzerland.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Ouma J. O., Murithi F. M., Mwangi W., Verguijl H., Gethi M., De Groote H., 2002. Adoption of maize seed and fertilizer technologies in Embu District, Kenya. KARI, CYMMIT.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Otengi S. B. B., Stigter C. J., Ng'anga J. K. N. H. Liniger H. P., 2007. Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 2(3), pp. 089-104.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Storey P. J., 2002. The conservation and improvement of sloping land. Volume 1: Practical understanding. Chapter 5: Improving the soil management.

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