Technologies

Community supported pasture and rangeland rehabilitation works [Angola]

technologies_3141 - Angola

Completeness: 88%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Reabilitação de terras e gestão das áreas de pastagem nos sistemas de produção agro-pastoris dos pequenos produtores no sudoeste de Angola (RETESA)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Food and Agriculture Organisation Angola (FAO) - Angola

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Rehabilitation of rangelands involves selection of key pasture and fodder species, and their reintroduction into strategic areas through stakeholder participation. The technology is also supported by communal management plans, which were created to address the root causes of land degradation.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

This technology was developed and implemented through the RETESA Project “Land rehabilitation and rangelands management in smallholder agropastoral production systems in south-western Angola”. RETESA is a project owned and implemented by the Ministry of Environment of the Government of Angola, with technical and methodological assistance from The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
Inappropriate grazing regimes and poor livestock management by pastoral communities in SW Angola have led to degradation of rangeland and pastoral resources, with perennial grassland species and shrubs having been effectively eliminated. This is despite the fact that the pastoral communities of the area know their environment extremely well and are aware of the land degradation happening around them. Under the project they identified crucial areas for rehabilitation works, selecting mostly areas around water points that have been in use both by local and transhumant herders. Through these works, the local community sought to (a) increase ground cover to reduce sediment loads entering waterways (erosion control), (b) provide shade for livestock, (c) increase forage production and (d) introduce legumes and multipurpose forage trees in areas of high animal traffic. A total of four areas in the Bibala and Virei Municipalities were identified for the activities.
The communities were closely involved in the selection and propagation of plant species for the rehabilitation works. The project field staff also ran field palatability trials with them to confirm that the plants selected met their expectations. These participatory trials were also aimed at enhancing their understanding of livestock nutrition and how it related to animal health. Once the species were chosen, seed was collected by the communities and the Project Technicians, and was multiplied in 32 Agro-Pastoral Field School Nurseries and 2 Government funded Veterinary Research Stations. A total of 15 species were identified, with the grasses Eragrostis superba, Urochloa mosambicensis, and the trees Acacia nilotica, Faidherbia albida, Leucaena leucocephala and Moringa oleifera being the most valued by the communities as forage and multipurpose species. The trees were germinated from seed with success. However, native grass species failed to germinate by standard methods - early field trials having ruled out direct seeding methods. Thus they were multiplied by root division of plants collected from cultivated fields. This avoided removal of grass from natural areas.
As the majority of the areas selected for the rehabilitation works were focused around water points and waterways, the soils were generally alluvial, sandy loams. Precipitation is highest in the areas to the north: it ranges from 600 mm in the upper areas of the Bibala Municipality to 200 mm in the areas to the south in Virei. In general, the vegetation communities could be described as dry sclerophyll woodlands with Colophospermum mopane being the dominant tree species, with forest cover decreasing in height and density as one moves south toward drier areas.
Through close collaboration with the participant communities, three rehabilitation methods were designed and improved upon throughout the Project's duration. Method 1 was used to plant open areas within the rehabilitation zone, Method 2 was employed to introduce and protect concentrated plantings of the selected species in strategic locations within the landscape, and Method 3 was preferred for the recuperation of riparian vegetation and to reduce sediment loads in waterways. The three methods used are described in more detail in the Technical Drawings. To increase the sense of ownership and thus the sustained effectiveness of the rehabilitation works, land management plans and other supporting activities were also carried out.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Angola

Region/ State/ Province:

Province of Namibe

Further specification of location:

Municipalities of Bibala and Virei

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Aplicado em pontos específicos/concentrado numa pequena área
Comentários:

There are 3 main rehabilitation areas, all within the Namibe Province in Southern Angola.
Planting areas are selected due to their importance and relevance to the local communities. For the most part, the plantings have been centred around key water points. In order to increase impact and scale up the process of rangeland rehabilitation and improvement, management plans are negotiated and agreed upon by the communities through the Green Negotiated Territorial Development Approach (GreeNTD) processes.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The proposed project: “Land rehabilitation and rangelands management in smallholders’ agropastoral production systems in southwestern Angola” (RETESA) is a joint effort by the Ministério do Ambiente (MA), Ministério da Agricultura e do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas (MINANDER), Governo Provincial do Namibe, Governo Provincial do Huila, and Governo Provincial de Benguela, together with FAO and GEF. In line with the GEF-5 Land Degradation strategy, the project’s goal is to create an enhanced enabling environment in the agricultural sector and a sustained flow of agro-ecosystem services.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Preserva ecossistema
  • Preservar/melhorar a biodiversidade
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Atenuar a mudanças climáticas e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
  • Transhumance movements
Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • goats
Products and services:
  • meat
  • milk
Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

  • Linhas de drenagem, vias navegáveis
  • Lagos, represas
  • Natural springs
Comentários:

Number of growing seasons per year: 1
Livestock density: Official data is not available and true livestock numbers are unknown.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Comentários:

Crop land is increasing in the area as population increases and people move towards more sedimentary livelihoods.

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão de pastoralismo e pastagem
  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M2: Mudança de gestão/nível de intensidade
Comentários:

The management plans created at the community and administrative level identify a number of large areas which are to serve as 'Grazing Reverses' for the dry season. Therefore, the agreements call for all livestock to abandon the area at the onset of the first rains and not return until the Pastoral Management Forum agrees to open the area for grazing. Once open, the range is available to all pastoralists, those that live in the immediate area and those moving through on their transhumance migration.

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wr: erosão das margens
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bh: perda dos habitats
  • Bq: quantidade/ declínio da biomassa
  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade
  • Bl: perda da vida do solo

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Planting is typically based on three different methods, as seen in the figure above.
- Method 1 relies on placing a leguminous, multipurpose tree species in the ground with two native grass species to each side of the tree. The holes are dug and a small amount of manure is placed in the bottom of the hole, adding some water if it is readily available. Then the trees and grasses are planted and well-watered. Finally, a branch or two of thorny shrubs or trees are placed over the plants to protect them from being grazed (where possible, dead branches should be used, rather than cutting living plants).
- Method 2 requires the creation of an enclosed, protected area which is then planted at high densities, preferably in low-lying areas where adequate soil moisture is available. Dry, dead branches from thorny trees and shrubs are used to create the enclosures and provide protection to these plantings.
- Method 3 is based on the creation of a 'leaky weir', which is a small stone barrier, horizontal to the flow of water (on the contour) planted with a mixture of native riparian species. This is intended to slow the flow of water and stimulate the recovery of riparian vegetation. The plants are also protected with dry, dead branches from thorny trees and shrubs in this method.
To increase their effectiveness, it is recommended that the three methods be combined within the landscape, as seen in the 4th slide 'Field application of methods'.

Autor:

Projecto RETESA

Data:

10/01/2018

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • Por unidade de tecnologia
Especifique a unidade:

3345 seedlings produced, delivered and planted

Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant):

3345 units

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD
Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

6 Dollars

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Meetings and field visits with participant communities to identify plant species and their uses Best during growing season
2. Further meetings to decide on which species are to be multiplied and arrange seed collection Near end of growing season
3. Seed collection and transportation When seed is available (varies with species)
4. Instalation of irrigation systems Most communiites need a water extraction and distribution system to create nurseries
5. Delivery of nursery supplies and instalation of shade cloth Nurseries should have water access and shade
6. Planting of seeds and care for seedlings at nursery Formed part of Agro-Pastoral Farmer Field School activities
7. Identification of planting areas and timing Should be at beginning of rainy season, or when soil moisture permits
8. Organisation of materials and tools At least 1 week before the planting
9. Planting day (preparation of planting holes and transplanting of seedlings) 2 days maximum was seen to be optimal
10. Watering until the plants are established Usually a maximum of 3 watering over 1 week after the plantings
11. Follow up visits to make sure management agreements are being respected and plants are not being eaten by stock until they are ready Plants should not be grazed for at least 6 months from planting time until they are well established
Comentários:

The activities and costs given were those needed to produce and plant 3,345 trees and grasses in the 4 rehabilitation areas. Given that 3,345 plants were produced at a cost of $3284.75, the cost per plant produced and planted in the field is $0.98. Seedlings available through local, government nurseries were $2.00 per unit, but only exotic ornamentals were available. However, it can be expected that in other contexts and locations, it would be cheaper to buy seedlings, instead of training communities and creating numerous small-scale nurseries, though clearly these communities will not ‘own’ the process as well as if they were involved from the beginning.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Project Technicians/Drivers/Consultants, etc Person-days 30,0 20,0 600,0
Mão-de-obra Plant identification activities and seed collection Person-days 10,0 6,0 60,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Plant nursery creation and plant production Person-days 16,0 6,0 96,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Participation during planting days Person-days 25,0 10,0 250,0 90,0
Equipamento Vehicle Trips 10,0 40,0 400,0
Equipamento Nursery supplies (including water system which also supplies water to Farmer Field School) Materials 1,0 800,0 800,0 10,0
Equipamento Planting supplies (shovels, hoes, wheelbarrows, etc.) Materials 1,0 120,0 120,0
Equipamento Other improvements to water point (fencing, cement blocks, cement, hoses, etc.) Materials 1,0 250,0 250,0
Equipamento Maps (traced onto paper from projected images for management purposes) Materials 1,0 10,0 10,0
Equipamento Food and Refreshments Per person 25,0 2,5 62,5
Fertilizantes e biocidas Manure (50 grams per sack, 12.500 sacks) Kilos 625,0 0,25 156,25 100,0
Material de construção Shade-cloth m2 320,0 1,5 480,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 3284,75
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 3284,75
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

Remaining costs were provided by the RETESA Project.

Comentários:

Production depends on the ability of the pastoral communities to produce viable plants. If they are unable to do so, then plants can be bought from Government funded nurseries, though costs per plant will most rise though it can substitute the need for having to purchase a water supply system. The total shown here reflects a percentage (16%) of the costs of installing a water system that supplied water to the whole of the Agro-Pastoral Farmer Field School. These systems usually included a 10,000 litre water tank, a gasoline water pump, extraction pipe and parts, 100 to 200 mts of 1.5" hoses and parts and 3 kms of drip irrigation hose.

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Meetings to ensure management agreements are being respected. Once every 3 to 6 months, especially before and after rainy season.
2. Repairs and replacement of nursery supplies. Once a year.
3. Replanting of dead seedlings Just before and during rainy season.

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Visits to sites and tour of planting areas. Person-days 4,0 20,0 80,0 50,0
Mão-de-obra Driver. Person-days 1,0 20,0 20,0
Mão-de-obra Replanting of dead seedlings Person-days 2,0 6,0 12,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Watering Person-days 14,0 6,0 84,0 100,0
Equipamento Vehicle Trips 1,0 40,0 40,0
Equipamento Watering cans and buckets Materials 4,0 5,0 20,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 256,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 256,0
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

The RETESA Project provided an important part of both material and technical support to the communities, though the communities also contributed substantially.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

The activities and costs given were those needed to produce and plant 3,345 trees and grasses in the 4 rehabilitation areas. Given that 3.345 plants were produced at a cost of $3284.75, the cost per plant produced and planted in the field is $0.98. Seedlings avaliable through local, government nurseries were $2.00 per unit, but only exotic ornamentals were avaliable. However, it can be expected that in other contexts and locations, it would be cheaper to buy seedlings instead of training communities and creating numerous small scale nurseries, though clearly these communities will not appropriate the process as well as if they were involved from the beginning.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

In the past, the rainy season started in October or November and ran until May. However, the rains in the last few years have fallen in January to April.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

None in the area.

Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Usually the planting are undertaken along river plains and river banks, as they are the only areas that have the necessary soil moisture to ensure survival of the seedlings.

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

< 5 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Precário/nenhum

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Sim

Especifique:

Many bores and wells cannot be used due to Salinity problems. Before planting, it is wise to make sure soil salinity is not problematic in areas identified.

Ocorre inundação da área?

Sim

Regularidade:

Esporádicamente

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Water quality and quantity are major issues for the area. There are few if any reliable water sources in the area and most communities depend on wells dug in the river bottoms to supply their water.

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • low
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

The area is devoid of most wild animals due to the years of war the country experienced during the second half of the 20th century.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Seminômade
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

The communities are still traditional though are currently being influenced by the globalisation process.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Grande escala
Comentários:

Agricultural plots are considered private and are usually between 1 to 2 hectares, though grazing land, which makes up the majority of the area, is still commonly owned and covers vast areas.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Low rangeland production

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Slight improvement

Comentários/especificar:

Difficult to measure. Rehabilitation works and the management plans for the rangeland areas have led to some improvement, though the droughts affecting the area during the interventions significantly affected rangeland fodder production.

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No crop residues or fodder plantings used

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Crop residues and fodder plantings incorporated in cropping areas

Comentários/especificar:

The process allowed Project Technicians to educate communities on the use of crop residues as fodder and the planting of multiuse trees within cropping areas to provide green fodder in the dry season. The reintroduction of drought tolerant, quality indigenous grasses should also lead an increase in fodder production over the coming year.

Produção animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No planning for dry season grazing, apart from transhumance movements

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Crop residues and other cultivated forages produced for those animals that stay

Comentários/especificar:

The transhumance movements of livestock are still seen as the most adequate solution to changes in natural rangeland production, though most families leave behind some animals with the main family unit. These animals are now receiving the quality feed they need to remain productive and healthy.

Gestão de terra

Impedido
Simplificado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No management plans in place for commonly managed natural resources

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Participatory land management plans have been negociated and agreed

Comentários/especificar:

Simplified land management plans based on traditional livestock movements and cropping seasons have been negotiated and agreed by local stakeholders and municipal Administrators.

Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Qualidade da água potável

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Livestock and communities drink from same water

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Separate water drinking points for livestock and community

Comentários/especificar:

Unrestricted access of livestock to community domestic water points led to waterborne diseases and poor water quality. Separating livestock and domestic use has improved community health.

Disponibilidade de água para criação de animais

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

In addition to restricting livestock access to main water bodies, new drinking troughs have been built with community support.

Qualidade da água para criação de animais

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

By separating livestock drinking points and domestic water points, waterborne illnesses have been reduced. In at least one area a water tank and new drinking trough have been built with community support.

Impactos socioculturais

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No education or training on land degradation

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Education and training on land degradation issues and rehabilitation methods

Comentários/especificar:

The majority of communities that have gone through the process now understand how poor land management leads to land degradation and steps they can take to reduce it.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Quantidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Improved ground cover and the return of riparian vegetation would increase infiltration rates and decrease evapotranspiration rates and restore the micro water cycle. But this is also a long term process.

Qualidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Low

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Low in short term, improved in long term

Comentários/especificar:

Revegetation of river plains and river banks should lead to improved water quality though it will be a long term effect if the rehabilitation areas are respected.

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No method to deal with the high surface runoff rates in the area

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

A method has been devised for reducing surface runoff rates.

Comentários/especificar:

The 'leaky weir' method (Rehabilitation method 3) has shown promise over the duration of the Project and could be applied at other landscape levels to reduce surface runoff.

Solo

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The reintroduction of native grasses in the area should lead to improved ground cover, binding the soil and reducing erosion rates.

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The reintroduction of native grasses in the area should lead to improved ground cover ratios, binding the soil and reducing erosion rates.

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Proper livestock management also ensures that manure is properly and evenly distributed in the field.

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Cobertura vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Reduced number of poor quality grass species

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Communities capacitated in plant multiplication methods

Comentários/especificar:

Apart from the rehabilitation works themselves, the local communities have been capacitated with methods to approach and deal with land degradation.

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The reintroduction of native and leguminous plants has improved plant diversity both within rehabilitation areas and cultivated lands.

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da seca

Elevado
Diminuído

Microclima

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The works around the water points over time should lead to increase in vegetative cover, shade, habitat and reduced temperatures.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Capacidade de tamponamento/filtragem

Reduzido
Melhorado

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Precipitação pluviométrica anual decrease bem
Precipitação pluviométrica sazonal primavera decrease bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

neutro/balanceado

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

neutro/balanceado

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • casos isolados/experimental
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Não

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Communities learn about plants' role in the wider ecosystem, how to select and multiply key fruit, fodder or timber species and should see an increase in their horticultural and livestock production, leading to improved nutrition or income.
Done properly, it can be a cost-effective and reliable way to produce the plants needed within family units.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
When the plants are produced in collaboration with the local pastoral communities, the benefits are wide ranging, promoting everything from environmental awareness to technical and practical knowledge.
It remains a cost-effective way of improving key productive species and increasing community resilience.
Increasing biomass and introducing better management cycles contribute to reducing land degradation and improve nutrient and energy cycling.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Can require stable supply of water, and labour costs can increase if water sources are not easily accessible. Locate nurseries near reliable and accessible water sources.
Can require permanent residence, so as to be able to care for plants until they are developed and placed in the ground at the proper date in the calendar (before or during rainy season). Not easy in nomadic cultures.
Early attempts often fail to produce lasting results. Concentrate early efforts on small experimental plots so as to fine-tune planting methods and timing.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The technology is usually not suitable for large areas of land (>1,000 hectares). Compliment any rehabilitation efforts with improved management plans which are developed with stakeholder input and approval.
Plant losses are typically high, especially if rains fail to arrive, or if the year is abnormally dry. Watch weather forecast to try and focus planting campaigns on those days with a high probability of rain.
Local species are often not valued by local officials and technicians, leading to a predominance of exotic species in rehabilitation works. Undertake awareness and training sessions which highlight the value and uses of native species with local land users and administrative officials.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

The Project has a number of activities in the communities where the technology was used so there were numerous visits and interviews.

  • interviews with land users

Various information and survey methods were used throughout the RETESA Project, providing a solid basis from which to involve landusers and SLM specialists in decisionmaking processes.

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

3 SLM specialists.

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

15/05/2017

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

FAO in Action: Using indigenous knowledge to reverse land degradation in Angola.

URL:

http://www.fao.org/in-action/using-indigenous-knowledge-to-reverse-land-degradation-in-angola/en/

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