Technologies

No-till with controlled traffic [Australia]

no-till, permanent uncropped wheel tracks,eliminate soil compaction, judiciois spraying

technologies_945 - Australia

Completeness: 76%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Griffith Noel

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Large-scale no-till grain production with permanent wheel tracks
common to all on-farm equipment.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

This controlled traffic, no-till farming system (CT/NT) is practiced on a 1,900 ha farm on the broad, almost flat Jandowae Plains in semi-arid Queensland, Australia. Principal soil types are vertisols, with some poorer areas where the sand content is greater, and these have a tendency to hard-set and crust. Over the past five years, the farm owner has changed the farming system completely from conventional farming to no-till with controlled traffic. Controlled traffic means permanent uncropped wheel tracks or ‘tramlines’: all equipment has 2 metre axles. The total farm machinery comprises a tractor, a spray rig and two 11 meter zero-till planter/fertilizer units; one each for wheat and sorghum sowing. The tramlines were laid out two years ago by a contractor using Geographical Positioning System (GPS).
The main technical objective was to eliminate soil compaction. The CT/NT combination ensures the land -between the tramlines - remains in excellent condition. There has been no ploughing or tillage at all in those 5 years. He practices a three year rotation between winter wheat, summer sorghum and fallow, but the system is not fixed: it depends very much on soil moisture status and thus on the rainfall (opportunity cropping). Generally in summer about one third is in summer sorghum and in winter about one third in winter wheat, the rest of the land is
under fallow. The one-year fallow is maintained through the use of herbicides sprayed onto the undisturbed residue from the previous crop. The system is designed for rain capture - to build up soil moisture stores in the fallow periods for subsequent crops - and for disease control (to ‘spell’ the land). During the cropping cycle, the key to his effective weed control system is ‘to get in early’ and ‘actively chase weeds’ through judicious spraying. The farm is now free of the locally common persistent weed Erigeron annuus. In the five years his sorghum yields have risen from 3 to 7 tons per hectares. Over the last three years the soil has improved, becoming soft, friable and moist between his plant lines. Infiltration has improved a lot and soil structure is now excellent.
Tractor use and overall fuel consumption has decreased to less than one quarter of that under conventional tillage. Correspondingly the workload is hugely reduced: from four men required under the conventional system for an equivalent area, the farmer is the sole operator, very occasionally assisted by his son, and a paid contractor for harvesting. He is so satisfied with the CT/NT system that he is attempting to purchase a nearby property to extend the area that he can farm using his current machinery.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Australia

Region/ State/ Province:

Jimbour (north of Dalby), Queensland

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

19,0

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Não


Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - sorghum
  • cereals - wheat (winter)
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: Oct - AprS econd longest growing period in days: 180 Second longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Sep

Is intercropping practiced?

Não

Is crop rotation practiced?

Sim

If yes, specify:

wheat-sorghum-fallow

Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The farmer’s main reason for starting the combination of CT and NT was to rid himself of soil compaction, in order to achieve better utilisation of locally low and unpredictable rainfall amounts while minimising costs and reducing labour and machinery requirements.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Perturbação mínima ao solo

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
A3: Differentiate tillage systems:

A 3.1: No tillage

Comentários:

Main measures: agronomic measures

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
Erosão do solo pelo vento

Erosão do solo pelo vento

  • Et: Perda do solo superficial
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Pc: compaction

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Et: loss of topsoil

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, improvement of soil structure, reduction of compaction by traffic, increase of soil fertility

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate; Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD
Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

160

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. layout of the controlled traffic lines (tramlines) using GPS mounted in a 4x4 vehicle. Two days were adequate for the whole farm.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 5,0 5,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 5,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 5,0
Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Layout of the controlled traffic lines (tramlines) Two days were adequate for the establishment on the whole farm.
2. Weed control (spray-coupe) with roundup Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
3. Fertilizing Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
4. Sowing and simultaneous application of starter fertilizer Mid October, Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
5. Spraying pre-emergent herbicide to kill summer grasses Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
6. Harvest by contractors early March, Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
7. Weed control Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
8. Fertilizing (Urea) Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
9. Sowing and simultaneous application of starter fertilizer Mid May, Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
10. In-crop weed spray Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)
11. Harvest by contractors October
12. Fallow (1,250 ha) During 2 seasons or totally 1 year
13. Weed control (combination of roundup mixed with broadleaf herbicide) 5–6 times per fallow period
14. Determine the soil moisture (To determine soil moisture he uses an iron rod; if he can push it into the heavy clay soil, then the soil is moist. Additionally, he measures rainfall)

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 5,0 5,0 100,0
Equipamento Animal traction ha 1,0 6,0 6,0 100,0
Equipamento Harvesting by contractor ha 1,0 17,0 17,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seeds ha 1,0 8,0 8,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Fertilizer ha 1,0 53,0 53,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Biocides ha 1,0 22,0 22,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 111,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 111,0
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: tactor,spray rig, zero-till planter/fertilizer, iron rod

Comparison of costs between conventional tillage and no-till farming (CT/NT): (1) Labour costs are 4x less in CT/NT: 4 men used to work on the farm (conventional), now the farmer is alone – (plus contractors for harvesting). (2) Average annual diesel consumption: reduced from 108,333 litres (conventional) to 13,636 litres (no-till) which is 8 times less. (3) Costs of equipment to set up a CT/NT system (US$ 240,000) are 3 times less than that for conventional tillage equipment (US$ 700,000).
(4) For biocides he has to invest 5 times more in CT/NT. The conventional values are estimates.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

In average one third of the farm area is in crop and two thirds are fallow. This means that overall farming costs per
ha are reduced, since during fallow period activities are limited to spraying herbicides. Labour costs approximately US$ 160 per day. Machinery costs average out at US$ 20 per hour (diesel costs US$ 0.9 per litre). All the data comes from this single farmer. Purchase of equipment is not included in the table above.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido
  • Árido

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Landforms: Also footslopes and valley floors (both ranked 2)
Slopes on average: Also moderate (ranked 2) and rolling (ranked 3)

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil depth on average: Also shallow and deep (both ranked 2)
Soil fertility: Medium (ranked 1) and high (ranked 2)
Soil drainage: Poor

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Comercial/mercado
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Média
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

and own 88% of the land.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Impactos socioculturais

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Drenagem de excesso de água

Reduzido
Melhorado
Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído

Compactação do solo

Elevado
Reduzido

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade animal

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade de habitat

Diminuído
Elevado
Outros impactos ecológicos

Soil fertility

decreased
increased

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Caudal confiável e estável em período seco

Reduzido
Elevado

Cheias de jusante

Elevado
Reduzido

Sedimentação a jusante

Elevado
Diminuído

Poluição de água subterrânea/rio

Elevado
Reduzido

Transported sediments

increased
decreased

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

200

Comentários:

200 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: There isn’t a strong trend now towards growing spontaneous adoption: uptake has slowed dramatically as many conservative farmers prefer to continue their traditional tillage practices.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Land that previously was un-farmable is now under crops. Site inspection shows initially poor land to be now in good condition (after only 5 years). The value of the land has increased

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Farmers practising CT/NT can and are buying/leasing more land, which will improve the overall state of the land in Queensland.
Farmers can manage much larger growing areas with less personnel and equipment. A single operator is well able to run a large arable farm on his own

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Ditto.
Cereal farming is now less prone to yield losses (and crop failure) in drought years – as there is better rainwater infiltration and water use efficiency with CT/NT

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Continue with the system.
He has all weeds under control (without need for tillage).

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The contract harvester runs on 3 m wide axles, so the wheels run on the beds. However, there has only been one wet harvest in 5 years so the incidence of soil compaction from harvesting is negligible This is not really seen as a problem. One solution would be to build a dedicated harvester (too expensive) or find a contractor with equipment that fitted the system.
A conservative mentality towards conservation agriculture is constraining the adoption of the system by other farmers Continue demonstrating and disseminating knowledge about benefits.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Blackwell P (1998) Customised controlled traffic farming systems, instead of standard recommendations or ‘tramlines ain’t tramlines’.In Second national controlled farming conference, pp. 23–26. Eds JN Tullberg and DF Yule.

Available from where? Costs?

Gatton College: University of Queensland

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Hulme PJ, McKenzie DC, MacLeod DA and Anthony DTW (1996) An evaluation of controlled traffic with reduced tillage for irrigated cotton on a Vertisol.
Soil and Tillage Research 38:217–237

Title, author, year, ISBN:

McGarry D, Bridge BJ and Radford BJ (2000). Contrasting soil physical properties after zero and traditional tillage of an alluvial soil in the semi-arid tropics. Soil and Tillage Research 53:105–115

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