Technologies

Composting associated with planting pits [Burkina Faso]

Zai avec apport de compost (french)

technologies_959 - Burkina Faso

Completeness: 69%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:

De Pury Jean Pascal Etienne

Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS)

Switzerland

SLM specialist:

Ouedraogo Elisée

Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS)

Switzerland

SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: SLM in Practice - Guidelines and Best Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa (SLM in Practice)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS) - Switzerland
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles (INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles) - Burkina Faso

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Compost production, and its application in planting pits (zai) by farmers on fields near their homes.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Compost is produced in shallow pits, approximately 20 cm deep and 1.5 m by 3 m wide. During November and December layers of chopped crop residues, animal dung and ash are heaped, as they become available, up to 1.5 m high and watered. The pile is covered with straw and left to heat up and decompose. After around 15-20 days the compost is turned over into a second pile and watered again. This is repeated up to three times - as long as water is available. Compost heaps are usually located close to the homestead. Alternatively, compost can be produced in pits which are up to one metre deep. Organic material is filled to ground level. The pit captures rain water, which makes this method of composting
a valuable option in dry areas.
The compost is either applied immediately to irrigated gardens, or kept in a dry shaded place for the next sorghum seeding. In the latter case one handful of compost is mixed with loose soil in each planting pit (zai). These pits are dug 60 cm by 60 cm apart. Three to four grains of sorghum are planted in each pit. Compost in the pits both conserves water and supplies nutrients. This enables the sorghum plants to establish better, grow faster and reach maturity before the rains finish. As compost is applied locally to the crop, not only is the positive effect maximised, but also the weeds between the pits do not benefit. The water retaining capacity of the compost (absorbing several times its own weight) makes the difference. This is much more important than the additional nutrients, which only become available in subsequent years, and do not anyway completely replace all the nutrients extracted by the crops.
The planting pits also help by harvesting runoff water from the microcatchments between them. Boulgou experiences erratic and variable rainfall with frequent droughts. The poor soils are often crusted and have a low water-retention capacity. Due to a high and increasing population, the land has become exhausted, and fallow periods are no longer sufficient as a consequence. Fertility and yields have declined. Sorghum without compost is more vulnerable to drought and crop failure.
During the dry season, after harvest, fields are grazed by cattle of the nomadic pastoral Peuhl, who also herd the agriculturalists’ livestock. Interestingly, the Peuhl have started to systematically collect the manure for sale, since the increased demand (for composting) has led to doubling of the price. Composting has been applied in Boulgou Province of Burkina Faso since 1988.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Burkina Faso

Region/ State/ Province:

Boulgou Province, Burkina Faso

Comentários:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 200 km2.

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrossilvipecuária

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • oilseed crops - groundnuts
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - sorghum
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • vegetables - root vegetables (carrots, onions, beet, other)
  • legumes and pulses - peas
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: May - Oct

Is crop rotation practiced?

Sim

Pastagem

Pastagem

Animal type:
  • goats
  • mules and asses
  • zebu cattle
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

Produtos e serviços:
  • Lenha
  • Frutas e nozes
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Population increase has led to cultivation of all the available arable land, thus shortening or eliminating fallow periods.
Organic matter in the soil is reduced, the water holding capacity of the soil has diminished and consequently yields have fallen. This has been compounded by the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s. Thirty years ago farmers harvested 800 kg/ha each year, but by the 1980s yields had fallen to merely 400 kg/ha on average.

Main products/ services: Sorghum and zebu cattle (after harvest)

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada
  • Gestão integrada de fertilidade do solo
  • Colheita de água

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
  • Pk: quebra e ressecamento
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Ha: aridificação
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Pc: compaction, Pk: sealing and crusting, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, other human induced causes (specify) (causes agricoles: Suppression des jachères; surpâturage), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (Secheresse du sol due à la destruction de l'humus plus qu'aumanque de pluie.), Expansion démographique, manque de connaissances (Comment acquerir ces connaissances)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), manque de moyens financiers (comment en produire avec des connaissances)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

A: Overview of compost making and zai planting pits within a field. Tree shade helps to conserve moisture in the compost pits.
B: Cross section of compost pit: protective straw (1); successive layers of compost (2), clay layer at the bottom (3).
C: Detailed view of zai planting pit.

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: increase / maintain water stored in soil

Secondary technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase in soil fertility, improvement of soil structure

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: compost
Quantity/ density: 7-10 t/ha
Remarks: applied in planting pits

Autor:

Mats Gurtner

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Transport compost to the fields: April / annual
2. Deepen planting pits (zai) (to original dimensions of 15 cm deep, 20 cm diameter, and 60 cm apart) and apply a handful of compost mixed with earth, just before planting sorghum After the first rains / annual
Comentários:

Editors’ comments: Soil fertility decline is a major problem for much of Africa, and composting provides an opportunity for local mitigation of this. There are many ways of making compost, and this case is a good example of ‘aerobic heap compost’ from Burkina Faso. Here, the compost is concentrated in planting pits, which additionally harvest water.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 2,0 2,0 100,0
Equipamento Tools ha 1,0 10,0 10,0 100,0
Material de construção Clay 1
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 12,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 12,0

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Dig two compost pits (3 m by 1.5 m and 20 cm deep). Cover the bottom of each pit with 3 cm clay layer. beginning of the dry season (November). / initial establishment
2. Put 20 cm layer of chopped crop residues (cereal straw) into thecompost pit (water with one bucket). Add 5 cm layer of animal manure. Add 1 cm layer of ash. Repeat steps 1–3 until the compost pile is 1.0–1.5 m high. November / annual
3. Cover pile with straw to reduce evaporation, and leave to decompose. November / annual / up to 3 times (as long as water is available)
4. Turn compost after 15 days into the 2nd pit, then after another 15 days back into the 1st pit. Water the pile after each turning with 3 buckets of water. / up to 3 times (as long as water is available)
5. Store ready compost in dry shady place. January / annual

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 20,0 20,0 100,0
Equipamento Wheelbarrow renting ha 1,0 6,0 6,0 100,0
Equipamento None None 1,0
Equipamento None None 1,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Compost/manure ha 1,0 2,0 2,0 100,0
Material de construção Wet straw ha
Material de construção ash ha
Outros Compost transportation ha 1,0 2,0 2,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 30,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 30,0
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: hoe, knife, digging stick, bucket

Costs relate to production and application of one ton of compost per hectare - which a farmer can make in one year and is the product of one full compost pit. The compost is directly applied to each planting pit: since the pits all in all
constitute only around 10-15% of the field surface, compost is effectively applied at a concentration of 7-10 t/ha. This rate is equal to actual rates applied in small irrigated gardens (<0.1 ha). If compost is produced in deep pits, production is cheaper because there is less work involved.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Duration of establishment: 1 week

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil texture: Fine / heavy (elevations) and coarse/light (depressions)
Soil fertility: Low (ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)
Topsoil organic matter: Low (and decreasing further)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Poor (ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity: Low

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Market orientation: Subsistence (ranked 1) and mixed (ranked 2, in good years)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
Comentários:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 0.5-1 ha, 1-2 ha, 2-5 ha

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Comunitário (organizado)

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado
Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

By several times in dry years, compared to no compost use

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído
Outros impactos socioeconômicos

Integration of agriculturalists and pastoralists

decreased
increased

Input constraints

increased
decreased
Comentários/especificar:

Water for compost making

Impactos socioculturais

Instituições comunitárias

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Drenagem de excesso de água

Reduzido
Melhorado
Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Outros impactos ecológicos

Soil fertility

decreased
increased

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

5000

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comentários:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Strong trend towards growing spontaneous adoption. Almost everybody wants to imitate neighbors - but not everyone had received adequate training. Demand grew because of the expanded membership of the association. Some pastoralists use it in their gardens.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
All land users, even the poorest, can learn to make and apply compost. No jealousy amongst land users, which is a prerequisite for ist spread/acceptance

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Keep going with training and extension.
Possibility of doubling cereal yields in normal years: any surplus production can be sold

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Produce enough good compost/manure.
Ensures yields in dry years, giving security against drought and hunger.
Gives high income in dry years due to production increase and double prices on the market for the surplus

How can they be sustained / enhanced? However the government is attempting to stabilise prices, so this benefit might not endure.
Requires only locally available resources, and knowledge about compost application is ‘owned’ by the farmers: nobody can take it away from them.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The modest quantity of compost applied is not enough to replace the nutrients extracted by the crops in the long term Small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous fertiliser need to be added and crop rotation practiced.
The short/medium term local benefits are not associated with a positive overall, long-term ecological impact because there is a net transfer of organic matter (manure) to the fields from the surroundings Improve management of the vegetation outside the cropland, avoiding overgrazing etc to increase manure production.
Needs considerable water and thus also extra labour Pit composting helps to reduce water requirement in drier areas and at the same time reduces labour input.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Ouedraogo E . Influence d’un amendement de compost sur sol ferrugineux tropicaux en milieu paysan. Impact sur laproduction de sorgho à Zabré en 1992. Mémoire de diplôme.. 1992.

Available from where? Costs?

CEAS Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zougmore R, Bonzi M, et Zida Z . Etalonnagedes unités locales de mesures pour le compostage en fosse de type unique étanche durable. Fiche technique de quantification des matériaux decompostage, 4pp. 2000.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zougmore R, Bonzi M, et Zida Z . Etalonnagedes unités locales de mesures pour le compostage en fosse de type unique étanche durable. Fiche technique de quantification des matériaux decompostage, 4pp. 2000.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zougmore R, Bonzi M, et Zida Z . Etalonnagedes unités locales de mesures pour le compostage en fosse de type unique étanche durable. Fiche technique de quantification des matériaux decompostage, 4pp. 2000.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zougmore R, Bonzi M, et Zida Z . Etalonnagedes unités locales de mesures pour le compostage en fosse de type unique étanche durable. Fiche technique de quantification des matériaux decompostage, 4pp. 2000.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zougmore R, Bonzi M, et Zida Z . Etalonnagedes unités locales de mesures pour le compostage en fosse de type unique étanche durable. Fiche technique de quantification des matériaux decompostage, 4pp. 2000.

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