Falling Water Dam [中国]

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approaches_2400 - 中国

完整性: 83%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式


Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University (Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University) - 中国

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件


1.4 SLM技术问卷的参考

Auto-Flowing Slurry Dam

Auto-Flowing Slurry Dam [中国]

Auto-flowing slurry dams is filled with dense slurry by water flow from upland to maintain eroded soil particles and runoff.

  • 编制者: Yan ZHANG

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

The falling water dams are widely built in the middle reach of the Yellow River, the typical dams are filled with dense slurry by water flow from upland. The approach is implemented mainly by government investment.

2.2 该方法的详细说明


Falling water filled dams distribute widely in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. They are used to store water, wrap sediment which results from soil and water loss. On the Loess Plateau, in addition to the conditions of deep gully and steep slope, earth above the top of the dams can be used to build dams. First, soil is loosed with squirt guns, explosion or manually digging. Then, water is pumped up to the loose earth so as to rush the soil down along transporting ditch, turning the soil into dense mud, to dams level surrounded by tamped banks. Under the press of gravity, the mud dehydrates, consolidates and becomes uniformly dense body of the dams. Compared with dams in other areas, the water power filled dams in the Yellow River basin are characterized by much denser mud, uniform particles and body texture, smaller transect of dams body, and wide applicability to soil materials such as sand soil, loess soil and weathering residue. The types of dams have widely applied to build middle and small reservoirs and silt arresters in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, playing an important role in agricultural production and reduction of sediment into the Yellow River.

2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点




Shanxi, Shaanxi, etc.

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期





2.7 方法的类型

  • 传统/本土

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

The objectives of the approach are to control soil & water loss so as to reduce flood; to make more crop land.
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The main existing issues are unreasonable land use planning and low use rate; Lower standard of SWC design and poor quality in construction which would lead to flood danger; low administrative level and economic benefits.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

  • 阻碍

Only when government invests, the technology can be implemented
Treatment through the SLM Approach: investment

  • 启动

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights helped a little the approach implementation: Because land resources belongs to state and land user can lease the land.

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 国家政府(规划者、决策者)
  • 国际组织
3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 自我动员 rapid/participatory rural appraisal; The approach is a traditional way to harvest water and wrap soils, SWC applied land users easy to understand and accept it if some subsidy being obtained.
计划 互动 workshops/seminars; After a program granted, implementing agency and local communities working together.
实施 外部支持 responsibility for major steps; In practice, local communities are the major part to manager and carry out.
监测/评估 被动 interviews/questionnaires; When monitoring procedures are clear, the local communities could do this and evaluate.
Research 互动 Only can give some suggestions or questionnaire.

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

  • 政治家和领袖

Decisions on the choice of SLM Technology were made directive (top-down).
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by politicians / leaders (directive, top-down).

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训


  • 土地使用者
  • 农民对农民
  • 示范区域

How to maintain and reinforce the dams

4.2 咨询服务


  • 在固定中心

Name of method used for advisory service: Falling water dam show; Key elements: Selection of site for dam building, size of dam, materials and methods; 1) Mainly: projects own extension structure and agents, Partly: government's existing extension system 2) Mainly: projects own extension structure and agents, Partly: government's existing extension system; Extension staff: mainly government employees 3) Target groups for extension: land users; Activities: demonstration

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; At each government level, there is a SWC office which is in charge of SWC activities including extension.

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

  • 是,非常
  • 本地
  • 财务
  • 能力建设/培训
  • 设备

4.4 监测和评估



area treated aspects were ad hoc monitored through measurements
land users involved aspects were ad hoc monitored through measurements
There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 研究


  • 生态学
  • 技术

Pattern and standards for the dam design.
Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

  • > 1,000,000

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (national - The central government): 85.0%; local community / land user(s) (Village committee): 5.0%; other (World Bank): 10.0%

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 设备
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
机械 充分融资 subsidy
  • 基建
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
community infrastructure 充分融资 financed by government
  • 自愿

If managed by administrative way, land users' input are mainly voluntary, if through a project, usually paid in cash.

5.4 信用



Interest rate charged: 4.0%; repayment conditions: After 4 or 5 years when SWC produces benefits, loaner should return.
Interest was lower than market rate.

6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

They can harvest water and irrigate crops in dry seasons. Meanwhile, more crop land area is made.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The policies of land contract distribute land to individuals so that land users who involved in SWC activities need to be organized together for implementation of the SWC. The organization need much time and hard work. The problem is likely to be overcome in the near future. Administrative management can adjust and assort with this issue.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

6.3 方法活动的可持续性


6.4 该方法的长处/优点

Raising crop production and return (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: applying fertilizers as possible as can)
water can be irrigated in dry seasons and drinks both for cattle and man (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: maintaining and repairing if needed.)
Storing water (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: reducing vapour and leak as possible as can)
Enlarge cropland and raising yield (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: shifting food crops to cash crops)
reducing flooding (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: reinforce the dams timely)

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Costly and frenquently reinforce
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
The dams' quality are not high standardization for design and construction

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈

7.2 参考可用出版物


Special Planning Of Soil And Water Conservation in Xinzhou Region , Shanxi Province, 1986-1990


Library of the Resource and Environmental Department, Beijing Normal University.


How to design the dry masonry dam in the Hanjiachuan watershed. Tianyuzhu, Wangzuliang. Beijing. Water conservation in Beijing, 2000


Library of the Resource and Environmental Department, Beijing Normal University.