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Hill Agroforestry [孟加拉国]

Anas o mizalya Fal bagan (chakma) ; Mishra Faler Bagan (Bangla)

technologies_1342 - 孟加拉国

完整性: 53%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) (Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI)) - 孟加拉国

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

04/03/2004

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.5 请参阅有关SLM方法的问卷

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Mixed fruits gardening on hill slope with forest trees on hill top and bamboo at the lower part of the hill.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

On upper part of the slope natural forest tree species were allowed to grow and lower part with bamboo. On the middle part, pineapple was cultivated along the contour as short term cash earning crop and long term fruit trees were planted for long term return within the space (alley) between two rows of pineapple. Generally farmers are acquainted to cultivate pineapple along the slope as cash earning crops and they occasionally incorporate fruit trees in the system. The technology " Hill agroforestry" describe a change in farming system where pineapple and fruit trees are grown along the contour.

Purpose of the Technology: Parmenent farming with short and long-term income generation for better livelihood as well as soil consevation.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Slash and burn (Jhum) at initial stage followed by pineapple and fruit trees along the contour to establsh a parmenent farming. Three times weedding, accumulaion of weeded material as mulch and using chemical fertilizer (urea, TSP, MP) on Pineapple on rows and individual fruit trees.

Natural / human environment: Steep slope, acidic soil, secondary vegetation, chakma community, poor, subsistance livellihood, adoption of new technology.

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

孟加拉国

区域/州/省:

Chittagong Hill Tracts

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

混合(作物/放牧/树木),包括农林

混合(作物/放牧/树木),包括农林

  • 农林业
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Poor secondary forest where bamboo and small timber species were harvested that accelarate land degraded.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Poor return from jhum.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Pine apple can harvest first then fruits in second, them timber and again fruits and timber

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
每年的生长季节数:
  • 3
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 290; Longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Aug

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 农业林学

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • 1-10 平方千米
注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.4 km2.

Pineapple cultivation on variable degrees of hill slopes along the contour with different types of fruit trees in alley and secondary forest on the top where bamboo at the lower part of the slope as well as in the upper parts of the valley.

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
注释:

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (No off-farm work leads to overexploitation of forest), lack of captial (Only male are illigible to get loan from Bank), lack of knowledge (Lack of technical Know-how)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (If no work available peoples harvest forest product not considering carrying capasity leads to deforestation.), labour availability (Labor shortage in peek period)

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Fruit trees / shrubs species: Jack fruit, mango, jam, Goava,Suppery,Olive, Banana, pine apple

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 50.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 5.00%

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

Taka

注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

60.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

1.50

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. slash and burn 植物性的 Jan to Feb
2. Jhum 植物性的 May
3. Fruit trees plantation 植物性的 May to July
4. Pine apple Plantation 植物性的 Aug to Sep

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 0 month(s)

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Weeding 植物性的 May /three times
2. Fertilizer Aplication 植物性的 May to June /two times
3. Mulching with weeded material 植物性的 Feb/March /once in a year

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
农业气候带
  • 潮湿的

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Landforms: Footslopes: The area is mostly in Dupitila formation where hill tops are rounded or flat resembling almost like plateau. The area is in general closely disected with V- shaped valley. Hill agroforestry is practiced on the slope and upper part of the valley. Most cases valley floors are used for paddy cultivation.

Slopes on average: Cultivation practices on variable slopes. Therefore it is difficult to define the slope class on which the technology strictly practiced.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
  • 细粒/重质(粘土)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil depth on average: Soils on slope are shallow in general and also compact. Soils on the hill top and/or at foot slope are moderatly deep.

Soil texture: Soil texture also varies with position on the slope.

Soil fertility is very low. Soils on steep to vey steep slope has very low OM and most of the fertile topsoils are already eroded. But soil around the homsteads is more fertile (medium) because of incorporation of houshold wast. But soil around the homsteads is more fertile because of incorporation of houshold wast.

Topsoil organic matter: But soil around the homsteads is more fertile because of incorporation of houshold wast. Low as non- accumulation of OM.

Soil drainage / infiltration is good and well drained in hilly part. Valleys or upper part of the valley are of poorer drainage area.

Soil water storage capacity is high in deep or moderatly deep soil. Medium in shallow to very shallow soil.

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

and own 20% of the land (Few family purchase lands after getting normal lease amount and they have acces to othr busines or i).
and own 80% of the land (They donot have other options for more income.).

Off-farm income specification: Only one farmer was employed

Level of mechanization: Sometimes they share within theselves to over come labor crisis. The labor and the work is suppervised by the female member of the family as the male is employed else where.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,有命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
长期回报:

积极

6.5 技术采用

如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

13 households covering 35 percent of stated area.

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发地采用该技术,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 0-10%
注释:

13 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: There are some other areas near by adopted this type of farming.

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