有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）CAMP - Central Asian Mountain Partnership (CAMP - Central Asian Mountain Partnership) - 吉尔吉斯斯坦
A brick stove that is built into the existing internal wall, that will heat the two rooms and can be used for cooking.
The 2-room stove is a brick based structure that filters hot air into a second room, hence maximising the heating potential of the fuel. The basic stove is built of fire bricks, house bricks, cement and coated with a natural mix of straw and mud. It is a traditional concept based upon former soviet stoves, that was modernised and adapted to improve the energy efficiency, and make use of the materials that are available to the people. It is able to burn coal, wood, and tapac, and is designed to reduce the amount of natural resources used to meet the household energy needs.
Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of the 2-room stove is to replace the traditional cast iron pig style of stove, with a more modern and energy efficient stove that can be used effectively for cooking and the heating of two rooms. The 2-room stove is designed to filter the hot air between the rooms and the use the bricks as a thermal sink for heat retention. As most of the houses are made of mud bricks, the heat from the stove will conduct through the walls, which will act as radiators to emit warmth into the room. The 2-room stove also means that cooking activities can be conducted inside the house in a smoke free environment.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The stove requires basic training in construction by a skilled technician, however after a three day training course the local trades people are able to build their own stoves with limited supervision. The stove is constructed from 45 fire bricks and 400 household bricks, the hot plate and stove doors are bought second hand from the markets, and metal bars are used to reinforce the structure. There are two smoke vents in the wall between the two rooms to allow the smoke to filter its way along the snake like chimney until it vents through the roof. The final structure is coated in straw and mud which acts as an insulation layer.
Natural / human environment: There is a high reliance on natural resources in Shahtuti Bolo. The average family burns several tons of tapac (straw dung mix) and wood each year. The surrounding mountain area is sparsely vegetated and does not even provide enough fuel for the village during the harsh winter months. This is supplemented by buying wood from the neighbouring villages. One tapac weighs one kilo, this is organic matter that can no longer be used for soil enhancement, but for fuel purposes. It is estimated that the 2-room stove will reduce the amount of fuel burnt by 20-40% depending upon the household.
The two room stove is modernisation of a traditional design, therefore the concept is not new to the people.
- reduce energy
The technology is implemented in the households
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The over exploitation of natural resources that have lead to soil erosion and degradation of the soil structure.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The land has become increasingly unproductive over the last few decades. There is not enough pasture to feed our animals.
Constraints of settlement / urban
Longest growing period in days: 180Longest growing period from month to month: April - October
- 0.1-1 平方千米
The village of Shahtuti Bolo
Main measures: structural measures
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Wm: mass movements / landslides, Et: loss of topsoil, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Bq: quantity / biomass decline
Main causes of degradation: soil management (Failure to use organic fertilisers), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Removal of natural resources to meet local energy needs.), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (as above), overgrazing (Areas became over grazed as productivity declined), disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff) (removal of vegetation leads to increased run off from the mountain slopes.), poverty / wealth (There is a lack of money for investment), labour availability (Two thirds of the households in the village have people working abroad.), war and conflicts (There has been substantial political unrest in the area.)
Secondary causes of degradation: Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (There is a perception that there are more extreme rainfall events.), population pressure (Popualtion in the area is increasing), education, access to knowledge and support services (Lack of knowledge on good land management.)
Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation
S. stevenson, CAMP Kuhiston, apt19 h 131 Rudaki ave, 734003, Dushanbe
A simple view of the main part of the stove used for cooking. There are two cast iron doors, the lower is for air circulation and the upper is the combustion chamber for the fuel. There are two hot plates for cooking. The smoke travels from the fire vent towards the chimney and then through a 10cm sq hole to the brick structure on the other side. The smoke snakes it way around the the second structure which acts as a radiator as the bricks warm up. The smoke then returns into the chimney in the main room, heating the chimney as it vents.
Location: Shahtuti Bolo. Nurobod
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (The technical design requires a high level of knowledge)
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (With training the land user would be able to build their own two room stove)
Main technical functions: reduces the amount of dung and wood used as fuel.
Structural measure: 2-room stove
Construction material (other): fire bricks and regular house bricks, covered in mud are the main materials.
|1.||Construction of stove||结构性的||any|
|劳动力||Construction of stove||Persons/day||6.0||5.333333||32.0||100.0|
|施工材料||Fire cement||cub m||3.0||8.333333||25.0|
|施工材料||Metal cooking plates||plates||1.0||63.0||63.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)
|1.||Cleaning the stove||结构性的||annually|
|劳动力||Cleaning the stove||Persons/day||1.0||4.0||4.0||100.0|
The costs are based upon 2011 prices and are based on constructing only one stove.
The main cost is the fire bricks. These have to be transported from the capital. However, in some regions of Tajikistan, materials are available from stoves that were constructed several decades ago which could be reused.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is low - medium
Soil drainage / infiltration is poor
Soil water storage capacity is low-medium
Availability of surface water: is good for the village because there is a stream and medium for other areas which have access to te stream.
Land users applying the Technology are mainly disadvantaged land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Training is provided on he construction of the stove. This is only attended by men.
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
80% of the land users are poor and own 95% of the land.
20% of the land users are poor and own 5% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: 44 out of the 58 households are reliant on remittances from Russia, however all the families have livestock which they buy and sell in the local markets and a small household plot for vegetables.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Four people have the majority of the land user rights in a village of 58.
Improved cooking conditions i.e. no smoke.
Demand on natural resources
On average around 30% reduction
Do not need to cook outside and improve the internal living conditions.
Leaves natural resources for the community benefit.
Helps prevent inter village conflicts over natural resources.
The project is targeted at the most vulnerable in the community.
Livelihood and human well-being
It has reduced the time, effort and money spent on fuel whcih can be up to 50% of the household's budget in extreme cases. It has improved the heating in the household and created a smoke free environment for cooking.
Reduction in the burning of dung.
The stove is able to take other fuel sources in the event that natural resources are not available.
There is a high initial outlay in the building materials and labour costs, but once the two room stove is constructed it only requires annual cleaning which can be done via hatches already included in the design.
10 households in an area of 0.1 - 1 km2 (ca. 596 habitants)
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on acceptance with external material support: All land users given support have constructed a stove. The project will build a further 11 stoves in the local district for the most vulnerable families.
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: To early in the project to say, but several memebers of the community are trained to build the stove.
It keep the house warm and for longer.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Thermal insulation techniques and energy efficiency training may support reduced fuel use.
|I do not have to cook outside in the winter months.|
|It is easy to clean.|
It improved the household heating system dramatically, as the previous cast iron stove does not retain the heat after the fire dies.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The room could be insulated using traditional techniques or modern materials that are starting to appear on the market.
The brick design will retain the heat for several hours and will heat two rooms.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Doors and windows in the rooms could be sealed to prevent drafts.
The stove will last for 25yrs with minimal maintenance.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? If the stove became popular a small brick making factory could be established.
|It is expensive, and I need an expert to help me.||Remittances could be used to fund the initial set up costs.|
|There is a high initial investment that has required project funding.||Collective building of the stoves will reduce the cost. Micro-finance loans could be made available to help cover the initial costs.|
|The stove requires technical training in its construction.||A booklet could be produced to support self building of the stoves.|