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'Forage Christine' [布基纳法索]

Forage Christine

technologies_2994 - 布基纳法索

完整性: 94%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Book project: Guidelines to Rangeland Management in Sub-Saharan Africa (Rangeland Management)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles (INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles) - 布基纳法索

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

01/06/2017

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

A modern hydraulic complex in the centre of the Sahelian region of Burkina Faso for watering livestock in the dry season.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

'Forage Christine' is a major water infrastructure, established in the northern part of the Sahel region in Burkina Faso between longitude 0°45’W and latitude 14°48’N, providing drinking water to herds within an area of 100 to 300 km from its central location between Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It was established in 1971 in the context of major droughts that had affected the Sahel, and it was opened for the first time in 1972. It is located in the middle of the Sahel region of Burkina Faso, at two km from the pond of Tin-Arkachen in the department of Déou, at approximately 45 km from the capital of the department, and 85 km from Gorom-Gorom. At the sub-regional level, the well is a around ten km from the border with Mali, and at 100 km from the border with Niger. The climate is of Sahelian type, and has a rainy season of 3 to 4 months (from June-July to September), which is subject to strong temporal and spatial variations in precipitation, and a dry season of 8 to 9 months. The climatic conditions are characterized by highly irregular winds, precipitation, evapotranspiration and moisture due to fluctuations in atmospheric circulation patterns. Annual precipitation is around 500 mm on average, with roughly 30 rainy days, and is marked by significant inter-annual variations. The stream network of the region consists of several streams, with one permanent river: Béli. To this river, ponds and many depressions are connected, which disappear after the month of January. The soils are very diverse in general, and mostly of sandy texture. They do not provide a good medium for plant growth due to the low permeability, which reduces water infiltration. Therefore water availability appears to be one of the major limitations for rainfed agriculture, in addition to the limited retention and availability of nutrients. According to the phytogeographic division of Burkina Faso (Fontes and Guinko, 1995), the area of 'Forage Christine' is situated in the northern or strict Sahelian phytogeographic sector. This sector is characterized by a set of typical Saharan and Sahelian vegetation species which mainly occur in shrub and woody steppes (48.85%) and grassy steppes (24.37%), which form the larger part of the rangelands (***). This vegetation provides the most important natural grazing land to livestock.
With regard to the human environment, the last General Population and Housing Census mentions a population of 25321 inhabitants for the municipality of Déou. Yet this number varies significantly due to the seasonal migration of people from other regions to use water and forage resources. The ethnic groups in the region are mainly Fulbé, Kurumba, Songhai, Tuareg, Mossi and Hausa people.
Economic activities in the region are livestock keeping, farming, craftmanship, fishing, trade, tourism and hunting. Several socio-economic groups are guiding these activities. Some 60 farmer groups, 53 groups of livestock keepers, six of which for female livestock keepers, and three organisations for environmental protection. With regard to infrastructure for education, sanitation and socio-economical conditions, the municipality of Déou has three markets, 18 schools, one middle school, 47 permanent functional literacy centers (CPAF), one recreation center, six cereal banks, three healthcare and welfare centers (CSPS), three medical stores, one tourist camp and one financial institution.
Farming and livestock keeping continue to be the most important socio-economic activities. The agricultural crops produced include millet, sorghum, maize, cowpea, rice and groundnut. In 2009, a total area of 345.5 ha was sown for these crops. The Sahel region in Burkina Faso has excellent conditions for livestock keeping. The animal species found in the region are mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, donkeys and horses and poultry. Several facilities and installations for water supply to pastoral areas are available in the region, as well as storage facilities for agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (SPAI) and infrastructure for trade and animal health care. The municipality of Déou disposes of one reservoir, five artificial ponds, 43 firm wells, ten vaccination centers, one store for agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (SPAI), one animal shelter, a facility for slaughtering and a livestock market.
The well called 'Forage Christine' was constructed in 1971 by a French engineer, which named it after his wife, and opened it for the first time in 1972. Due to conflicts between Burkina and Mali it was ruined in 1976, and then again in 1985. In 1996 the National Office for Wells and Boreholes (ONFP), a government agency, rehabilitated the well and made two supplementary boreholes. The complex consists of a main well with an operating flow rate of 120 m3/h, having a submersible pump of brand KSB, type OPA 150s-65/8, and a pump capacity of 60 m3/h. Next to the main well there is a secondary well, which is equipped with a hand-operated pump with a capacity of 18 m3/h.
The energy for pumping water from the wells is provided by a generator with an engine of brand DEUTZ (type: F3 - 6L 912) and a switch of brand LEROY SOMER – Type LSA 42.1 L8L C1/4, a voltage of 400 V and continuous power of 50 kW. The generator has a switch and a battery. A diesel tank with a volume of approximately 9 m3 was installed for the power supply to the generator. The pumped water is stored in an elevated water tank, which is located at a distance of about 200 m from the well, and has a volume of 50 m3. The water from the elevated water tank is distributed to four artificial ponds with a dimension of 50 m x 50 m x 1.5 m at equal distances on all sides of the central reservoir. The water is conducted to the artificial ponds through PVC piping, which is buried underground over a distance of 8 km, or 2 km for each pond. The water flow is controlled by nine valves of type Nr. 4000, Reg. Nr. W 1.129, installed on the pipes. The hydraulic complex was installed in 1996 by the National Agency for Water and Sanitation (ONEA). The complex is managed by the livestock keepers through the User Association of 'Forage Christine' (AUFC). The statutes of this organisation were adopted on 2 May 2014. The well is managed according to a set of requirements which specify the terms for access to water: date of opening and closure of the well, the amount to be paid per animal and the management of the cash money provided.

2.3 技术照片

关于照片的一般说明:

The dates of the picture and the photographer are unknown.

2.4 技术视频

注释、简短说明:

No video

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

布基纳法索

区域/州/省:

Sahel/Oudalan

有关地点的进一步说明:

Déou

注释:

The infrastructure was created in 1971, but the facilities for use were installed in 1996.

2.6 实施日期

注明实施年份:

1971

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

A French aid worker introduced the technology with support from the government of Burkina Faso, through the National Agency for Water and Sanitation (ONEA).

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 适应气候变化/极端天气及其影响
  • 创造有益的经济影响
  • 创造有益的社会影响

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧场:
  • 半游牧/游牧
主要动物种类及产品:

Animal species: cattle, sheep, camels, donkeys and goats.

注释:

In addition to livestock keeping, subsistence farming is practiced. The main crops are sorghum, millet, groundnut and cowpea. The size of the fields varies between 0.5 and 3 ha. The farm type is family-based.

如果由于技术的实施而导致土地用途发生变化,则在技术实施前说明土地利的用途。:

No change in land use due to the implementation of the technology.

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
具体说明:

Mid-June to September

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 畜牧业和牧场管理
  • 地下水管理

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 适用于特定场所/集中在较小区域
注释:

The well is located in the municipality of Déou, but is used for livestock from the entire Sahel region in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

结构措施

结构措施

  • S7:集水/供水/灌溉设备

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

水质恶化

水质恶化

  • Ha:干旱化
  • Hs:地表水良变化
  • Hg:地下水/含水层水位的变化
  • Hp:地表水水质下降
其它

其它

注释:

The technology aims to remediate water scarcity for livestock during the dry season.

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 减少土地退化

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

SNV

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

1. Main well, flow rate 120 m3/h.
2. Secondary well, flow rate 18 m3/h.
3. Submersible pump, brand KSB, type OPA 150s-65/8, flow rate 60m3/h, year of constrcuction1996
4. Elevated water storage tank, volume 50 m3.
5. Four ponds of 50 m x 50 m x 1.5 m.

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术单元
其它/国家货币(具体说明):

FCFA

注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

550.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

35 000 per month

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Main well 结构性的
2. Elevated water storage tank 结构性的
3. Artificial ponds 结构性的
注释:

Not evaluated.

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

注释:

Not applicable.

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Use of diesel 管理 year
2. Use of oil and filters 管理 year
3. Periodic maintenance of the generator 管理 year
4. Fuel delivery 管理 year
5. Transport costs of the maintenance operator 管理 year
6. Wage of the guard 管理 year
7. Compensation of the manager of the generator 管理 year
8. Charges for accounting 管理 year

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Periodic maintenance of the generator season 1.0 150000.0 150000.0
劳动力 Compensation of the GE manager person-month 12.0 37500.0 450000.0
劳动力 Charges for accounting person-month 12.0 175.0 2100.0
劳动力 Wage of the guard person-month 12.0 50000.0 600000.0
其它 Use of diesel season 1.0 2921000.0 2921000.0
其它 Use of oil, filters season 1.0 68000.0 68000.0
其它 Reparations to the hydraulic complex season
其它 Fuel delivery season 1.0 125000.0 125000.0
其它 Transport costs of maintenance operator season 1.0 60000.0 60000.0
技术维护所需总成本 4376100.0
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

The municipality, the management committee and the NGOs operating in the area (SNV).

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

1. Availability of fuel for the generator.
2. Failures in the functioning of the generator to fill the storage tanks.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
指定年平均降雨量(若已知),单位为mm:

500.00

有关降雨的规范/注释:

Mean annual rainfall is around 500 mm, with approximately 30 rainy days and characterized by a strong variation between years. The water system has many streams, of which only one is permanent (the Béli river). To this river, ponds and many depressions are connected, which disappear after the month of January.

注明所考虑的参考气象站名称:

Station of Gorom-Gorom

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

The climate is of Sahelian type, and has a rainy season of 3 to 4 months (from June-July to September), which is subject to strong temporal and spatial variations in precipitation, and a dry season of 8 to 9 months. The climatic conditions are characterized by highly irregular winds, precipitation, evapotranspiration and moisture due to fluctuations in atmospheric circulation patterns.

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
土壤质地(地表以下> 20厘米):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

The soils are very diverse in general, and mostly of sandy texture. They do not provide a good medium for plant growth due to the low permeability, which reduces water infiltration.

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

表面上

地表水的可用性:

匮乏/没有

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Limited water availability appears to be one of the major limitations for rainfed agriculture, in addition to the low retention and availability of nutrients.

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等
栖息地多样性:
关于生物多样性的注释和进一步规范:

The area around the 'Forage Christine' is characterized by a variety of typical Saharan and Sahelian vegetation units which mainly occur in shrub and woody steppes (48.85%) and grassy steppes (24.37%), and which form the larger part of the rangelands.

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 定栖的
  • 半游牧的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 非常贫瘠
  • 贫瘠
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
  • 畜力牵引
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 青年人
  • 中年人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Several socio-economic groups are guiding the activities of land users. These include 60 farmer groups, 53 groups of livestock keepers, six of which for female livestock keepers, and three organisations for environmental protection.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的
  • 中等规模的
注释:

Most of the agro pastoralist are smallholder farmers, livestock keeping is their main livelihood activity.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 社区/村庄
土地使用权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
  • 社区(有组织)
用水权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
  • 社区(有组织)

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

畜牧生产

降低
增加
水资源可用性和质量

家畜用水的可用性

降低
增加

家畜用水的质量

降低
增加

社会文化影响

土地使用权/用水权

恶化
改良

生态影响

减少气候和灾害风险

干旱影响

增加
降低

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

水资源可用性

降低
增加

旱季稳定可靠的水流

减少
增加

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 非常好

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

6.5 技术采用

  • 大于 50%
注释:

Not applicable

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Existence of a temporary coordinating committee on the site of the well, acting as an interface between the authorities and the livestock keepers using the well.
The arrangement of the use of the artificial ponds according to the terms set by the authorities and the technical services.
Monitoring of animal health and informing the livestock keeping service in case of suspected infectious diseases.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Water availability and access to water for users when the well is operational; potential users are willing to contribute to the operation of the well.
Water availability for livestock.
Strong involvement of the authorities and the technical services in issues relating to 'Forage Christine'.
Implementation of several methods to solve management problems.
Good organisation of the management of the water source.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Lack of transparency in the use and management of contributions intended to cover the functioning and the maintenance of the generator and the wage of the guard, who also operates the generator and supervises the related installations. Good functioning of the management committee and committee meetings will enable to overcome this disadvantage.
A low level of representation of the different population groups in the management committee (only the Djelgobé of Gandéfabou are members; these people settled in the area in Boula and claim to be the indigenous people in the area). Involving all groups using the well more closely in order to have an appropriate representative in the management committee.
Lack of consultation between the management committee and the livestock keepers having their residence in the area. Stimulating the management committee to communicate more closely with the neighboring livestock keepers through a framework for consultation on the way in which they manage the infrastructure of the 'Forage Christine'.
Insufficient awareness of the roles and responsibilities of the management committee by the livestock keepers (only the role of the guard is known to the livestock keepers).
The undemocratic establishment of the management committee (self-appointed members), which explains why livestock keepers consider the committee as an imposed structure.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
The non-involvement of livestock keepers (potential users) in the management of the well in some management methods (concession to RMC); their weak involvement in the management of the well, and their continued low representation in the committees (2 to 3 persons). Involving livestock keepers more closely in the management committees and in the decision-making bodies related to 'Forage Christine'. Increasing the number of representatives of livestock keepers in the management bodies of the well.
The failure to address the concerns of livestock keepers in the implementation of the management methods. Ensuring that the livestock keepers are considered by the management committee, and that they can effectively participate in the committee.
The inappropriate use of contributions from users of the well for operating the facilities of the well in a sustainable way. Ensuring that the funds generated by the well are managed properly by the management committee.
Competition for water between humans and animals. Providing wells or pumps for human consumption of water.
Huge inflow of animals which overgraze the area, thereby threatening the environment. Raising awareness among livestock keepers and herders on the need to manage the natural resources properly in the area influenced by 'Forage Christine', with the aim to mitigate the environmental degradation that could result from overgrazing.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查

03

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

03

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Boundaoné et al., 2015. Textes fondamentaux et outils de gestion du forage Christine, PGP-FC/GRP, SVN, 60 p.

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

SNV, 2011. Etude pour la sécurisation des ressources foncières pastorales autour du Forage Christine dans la province de l’Oudalan. Final report, 142 p.

7.3 链接到网络上可用的相关信息

标题/说明:

News paper article: Elevage dans le Sahel : "Christine" ou le symbole de l’hydraulique pastorale.

URL:

http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article31821

模块