这是该案例的一个过时的非现行版本。 转到当前版本
技术
闲置

Alliance Farming [喀麦隆]

Alliance Farming

technologies_3342 - 喀麦隆

完整性: 94%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Jiedoh Duni

MBOSCUDA

喀麦隆

SLM专业人员:

Sali Usmanu Mallam

MBOSCUDA

喀麦隆

SLM专业人员:

Hammadu Bawuro Abubakar

MBOSCUDA

喀麦隆

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
In Search of Common Ground
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) - 喀麦隆

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Alliance farming refers to collaboration between crop farmers and pastoralists, who agree to use the same land and related resources (crop residues as fodder for pastoralists; dung as fertilizer for crop farmers) for their mutual benefit.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Alliance farming is partnership between pastoralists and subsistence farmers to share resources. They agree to use the same land and related resources sequentially: growing crops during the rains, and grazing cattle in the dry season. It is a further development of the conflict mediation process under which cattle are allowed to graze on cropland after harvest. The cattle consume crop residues and weeds (including some grass) on the farm and they produce dung and urine in turn, which increases nitrogen content and organic matter in the soil. This enhances its fertility and makes it more productive for the next round of crop cultivation. The crops grown are mainly annuals including maize, beans, soybeans and groundnuts. The livestock are mainly zebu cattle for beef (Bos indicus). There exists several variants (or components) of this arrangement: 1) The farmer constructs a night paddock (a corral) in farmland and invites pastoralists to kraal their animals in the paddock overnight; 2) The farmer arranges with the pastoralist to farm on areas where animals have been held overnight, in grazing land – and constructs a fence to protect the crops; 3) In communities where transhumance is common, the farmer allows a pastoralist to graze his cattle on crop residues remaining after harvest; 4) Pastoralists allow farmers to collect dung and apply it in their farms. Contracts for the most part are verbal and non-written, and each party counts on the good conscience and honesty of the other.

2.3 技术照片

关于照片的一般说明:

4 different photos showing pastoralists and farmers who are benefiting from this technology have been provided.

2.4 技术视频

注释、简短说明:

There are two videos of this technology available but each is about 125 MB and just too heavy to be uploaded on to this site.

位置:

n.a

摄影师的名字:

n.a

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

喀麦隆

区域/州/省:

North West Region

有关地点的进一步说明:

This approach has been piloted in 23 communities in the North West Region.

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 适用于特定场所/集中在较小区域
注释:

Presently common in pilot villages/communities.

2.6 实施日期

注明实施年份:

2011

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 作为传统系统的一部分(> 50 年)
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Some aspects of this technology were already in practise in the region over the decades but due the facilitation of Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) this technology is being adopted now by many locals

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产
  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • 保护生态系统
  • 结合其他技术保护流域/下游区域
  • 创造有益的社会影响

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

同一土地单元内混合使用的土地::

具体说明混合土地使用(作物/放牧/树木):
  • 农牧业(包括农牧结合)

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
年作 - 具体指明作物:
  • 谷物类 - 玉米
  • 豆科牧草和豆类 - 豆子
  • 豆科牧草和豆类 - 大豆
  • 油料作物 - 花生
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
具体说明:

Usually one growing season.

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧:
  • 游牧
  • 半游牧畜牧业
  • zebu cattle
注释:

Main animal species and products: Zebu cattle under extensive production which produce dung and urine.
Main products/ services: Annuals such as maize, beans, soybeans and groundnuts, while livestock kept under extensive system of production produce dung and urine to enrich the soil.

3.3 由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?

由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?:
  • 是(请在技术实施前填写以下有关土地利用的问题)
注释:

Land use is changing due to the use of this technology but this change is principally driven by the increasing demographics. Through the use of this technology, much more rangelands is being cultivated for crop production

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
注释:

This is a very low-input land use.

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 畜牧业和牧场管理
  • 农畜综合管理
  • 土壤肥力综合管理

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

农艺措施

农艺措施

  • A1:植被和土壤覆盖层
  • A2:有机质/土壤肥力
植物措施

植物措施

  • V2:草和多年生草本植物
  • V4:更换或清除外来/入侵物种
结构措施

结构措施

  • S6:墙、障碍物、栅栏、围墙
管理措施

管理措施

  • M1:改变土地使用类型
  • M4:活动时间安排的重大变化

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

化学性土壤退化

化学性土壤退化

  • Cn:肥力下降和有机质含量下降(非侵蚀所致)
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 减少土地退化
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地
注释:

Some degraded land is being rehabilitated as pastoralists do invite farmers to come farm in the rangelands which have been invaded by braken fern. By tilling of the soil and removing the rhizomes in them, the spread of the invasive species is being put to check.

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

• Alliance farming is an advanced outcome of the conflict mediation process whereby cattle are allowed to graze on crop lands after harvest.
• Livestock consume crop residues and weeds (including grass).
• When the land is used to paddock cattle, their manure and urine fertilize the soil making it more productive when the crop farmers return to cultivate.
• Crops are planted on the plot of land once the cattle are taken away.

作者:

MBOSCUDA North West Region Cameroon

日期:

13/01/2018

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术区域
注明尺寸和面积单位:

0.5 hectares

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

FCFA

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

1500 FCFA

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Farmer harvests annual crop e.g. maize, beans At the end of growing season which is usually in October
2. Farmer invites pastoralist to bring herd to graze off crop residues After harvest of crops in Octorber
3. Cattle graze on crop residues and weeds on farm During grazing in the dry season from mid-November onwards
4. Dung and faeces passed out by animal increases N content of soil During grazing, mostly in the dry season mid-November to mid-March.
5. Pastoralist takes animals away from farm At the beginning of the rains in mid-March.
6. Farmer then returns to till soil and plant annual crops in the field At the beginning of the growing season by mid-March.
注释:

This is actually a low input technology.

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

Land users bore all of the costs

注释:

A low input technology.

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. n.a.
注释:

There are no maintenance costs.

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

n.a.

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

The only costs pertain to herding the animal to farmer's farm which is done by pastoralist or his a herder he has paid

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

It is a uni-modal in nature with rains coming in by mid March and going by mid October.

注明所考虑的参考气象站名称:

Institute of Agricultural Research for Development

农业气候带
  • 半湿润

Sub-humid climate with mainly sudan savana characterized by undulating hills and short grass species interspersed with shrubs.

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 不相关

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
土壤质地(地表以下> 20厘米):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等
栖息地多样性:
  • 中等

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 定栖的
  • 半游牧的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
  • 混合(生计/商业)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 青年人
  • 中年人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

The land users are predominantly resource poor livestock and crop farmers.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 社区/村庄
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
  • 租赁
用水权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
  • 社区(有组织)

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Improved soil fertility from dung and urine leads to increase crop production.

作物质量

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Improved crop quality as little or no pesticides are used.

饲料生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

increase fodder production from crop residues such as maize stover, legume haulms and sweet potato vines.

饲料质量

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Farmers do not use chemicals on the crops so quality of resulting crop residues is also good.

畜牧生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

The greater access that the livestock have to crop residues has led to increased animal production.

生产故障风险

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

The risk of production failure has decreased since farmers have increased the effective sizes of their farm holdings.

生产区域

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Production area has also increased as farmers have increase land area under cultivation mostly when they are invited to come farm in rangelands in order to till the soil and break the cycle of spread of invasive species

土地管理

妨碍
简化
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Better land management now with the same land put to multiple uses and more productive than previously i.e. when the two land uses were separated.

收入和成本

农业收入

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Farm income has increased from improved production and productivity of crops and animals.

收入来源的多样性

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Income sources have been diversified. With increased income from farms, farmers most especially are going for other off- farm enterprises such as petty trading.

经济差异

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Economic disparities are being bridged because of the increased income from either livestock production or crop farming.

工作量

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Workload is also being eased as farmers and pastoralists are witnessing improved crop and livestock productivity. Farmers, especially, do not have to bring much more new land under cultivation.

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Food self-sufficiency of alliance farming practising families has improved from the increase in production.

健康状况

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

From the improved income as a result of increased production and productivity, alliance practitioners have more disposal income to take care of medical bills.

土地使用权/用水权

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Land use rights especially of pastoralists has improved since farmers now acknowledge that pastoralists do own land. Pastoralists, due to their late arrival in the region, are looked upon as 'strangers' by their farming neighbours. However this perception is changing because of the positive engagement between the these two main land users.

文化机会

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Increase cross-cultural dialogue within the community: pastoralists are predominantly Moslems while crop farmers are mainly Christians.

社区机构

削弱
加强
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Community institutions like the Dialogue Platforms have been strengthened, as they have grown in recognition among community members as a low- stake solution to resource use conflicts.

国家机构

削弱
加强
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Agro-Pastoral Commissions, which are the statutory bodies adjudicating conflicts between farmers and pastoralists, have come to see effectiveness of the Dialogue Platforms and are incorporating the Alternative Conflict Management practices in their modus operandi.

冲突缓解

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

-2

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

There has been a great decrease in the number, frequency and intensity of the conflicts as the two sets of land users have seen good reason to collaborate instead of antagonize each other.

社会经济弱势群体的情况

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

The self-esteem of the Mbororos who make up the majority of pastoralists community has been improved through this positive engagement with farmers.

生态影响

土壤

养分循环/补给

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Nutrient cycling has improved as dung and urine are returned to improve soil fertility and help subsequent crops.

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

2

注释/具体说明:

Soil organic matter has also being improved from the increase crop residues which animals do not eat all.

生物多样性:植被、动物

植被覆盖

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Increase soil fertility has meant increase crop cover

生物量/地上C

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Increase crop yields also mean increase crop biomass

植物多样性

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

Plant diversity has been somewhat increased due to fertile soils make it possible for different plant species to grow

外来入侵物种

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

-1

SLM之后的数量:

1

注释/具体说明:

The spread of alien species such as bracken fern on rangelands is being controlled since farmers are being invited by pastoralists to come and cultivate crops on rangelands. The tilling of the soil is a good mechanical method of controlling the spread of these invasive species.

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

对场外影响(测量)的评估进行具体说明:

n.a.

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年降雨量 减少 不好
季雨量 湿季/雨季 减少 不好

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨 不好
局地雹灾 不好
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
热浪 不好
干旱 不好
陆地火灾 不好
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 不好
生物灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
昆虫/蠕虫侵扰 不好
注释:

Growth of the crops most especially will be affected by climate change events such as droughts or too much rainfall. The crops are C4 crops and so will get very little benefits predicted rise in temperatures associated with climate change.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

积极

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

积极

长期回报:

积极

6.5 技术采用

  • 单例/实验
如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

More than 800 alliance farming pairs have been facilitated by this process.

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 0-10%
注释:

Farmers have not received any incentives from project in order to adopt this.

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Technology leads to increased crop yields because of the improved soil fertility.
Technology leads to improved crop quality because of the use of organic manure and less chemicals fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers can lead to leaching of inorganic nutrients into ground water, and also eutrophication of water bodies.
It has led to stronger social relationships between farmers and pastoralists.
Invasive species such as Pteridium aquilinium (bracken fern) that has invaded rangelands is being controlled. Tilling of the farms is a mechanical method of stopping its growth and spread.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
More productive use of land than when two land uses were separate.
More environmentally friendly since organic manure is being used.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
The ratio of pastoralists to farmers is really low (about 1:6) meaning that there are not many pastoralists to form Alliance Farming pairs with willing farmers. Increasing herd sizes to ensure more production of manure could alleviate this problem.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Agreements are verbal. Formalizing the contracts.
Some variants of the technology, for example that in which pastoralists allow farmers to collect dung to go to farm in another area may lead to nutrient export. The dung does not contribute to improve the fertility of the soil where it was collected but does so at a different site where farming will take place. There is no net loss of nutrients out of the whole system though. Transportation of dung to different sites should be discouraged. Farming should take place as much as possible on the farm that supplied crop residues to feed the animals.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查

4 field visits were done.

  • 与土地使用者的访谈

About 30 people were contacted during focus group discussions and key informant interviews.

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

4 SLM specialists were contacted.

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

Secondary data sources were consulted.

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

03/12/2018

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

MBOSCUDA Searchlight Magazine Vols 1, 2,3. 2014, 2015, 2016

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

Free copies

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Blasius Azuhnwi and Fiona Flintan (2017)- Making Rangelands Secure, Issue Paper 8, Rangelands Series

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

From ILC Rome for free

7.3 链接到网络上的相关信息

标题/说明:

n.a.

模块