HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)
Terraced orchard with alfalfa cultivation for fruit and fodder production and soil and water conservation.
The Alfalfa inter-cropping in terraced fruit orchard technology is documented by Sustainable Land Management Project/HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation with financial support of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
In the semi-arid regions of the Central Highlands in Afghanistan, land is intensively used for the
cultivation of subsistence (wheat) and cash crops. The technology presented here provides an economically sound solution for soil and water conservation. In this example, Alfalfa is grown in the spaces between the young trees to make use of the soil, light and water. The soil and water conservation quality of the technology is further enhanced with terracing to capture water.
Purpose of the Technology: The main purpose of establishing the fruit orchard with Alfalfa was to produce fruits for both
consumption and income, as well as for animal fodder. Terraces are important for retaining soil moisture, reducing soil erosion and preventing nutrient leaching. Alfalfa increases soil fertility as it fixes
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The area under this specific technology is less than 0.03 ha. The technology was established by the land user five years ago without external support. In the past, the site was sloping agriculture land used for potato and wheat cultivation, the two major staple crops in Bamyan. Animal manure, with small quantities of chemical fertilizers, were used to maintain the soil fertility. The farmer, Haji Hussain, learning from similar examples from Kabul, applied this technology on his private land
with sight modifications by including terraces for soil and water conservation. For the construction of one terrace, 14 person days are needed. The size of one terrace was about 43 m in length and 4 m in width.Initially the terraces were used for vegetable cultivation. Later on, he planted mainly apple and apricot trees and a few saplings of pear and plum. Two varieties of apple (red and yellow) were planted in the orchard and the distance between two trees in a row was about 3 m (for more details, please see the technical drawing). The saplings were prepared by the farmer himself using grafting. The trees vary in age, from 3-5 years. Alfalfa was planted 1-3 years ago. The farmer applies 1 kg urea and DAP per tree every spring in addition to a small quantities of manure. The orchard requires irrigation almost every week from mid-spring to autumn from a nearby canal. The water distribution and operation and maintenance of the irrigation infrastructure is regulated by a Mirab, or “Water Master”, elected by the water users and farmers.
Natural / human environment: Bamyan Center has temperate and semi-arid climate with an average annual rainfall of about 230 mm. The area receives snow during the winter season and the temperature can drop below -20 degree centigrade.There is one growing season from April to September. The soil in the orchard is sandy loam with moderate soil fertility. Orchards are considered to be more profitable by the land user than growing crops like wheat and potato. Before applying this technology, the average annual income of the owner from 0.3 ha land was 9,000 Afghani, equivalent to approx 180 USD. While after the application of terraced orchard with Alfalfa cultivation technology, his average annual income from 0.3 ha increased to 45000 Afghani or 900 USD.
Bamyan Centre / Shinya Fuladi
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.0003 km2.
Alfalfa is cultivated in apple and apricot mixed terraced orchard for multiple benefits.
The farmers learnt this technology by seeing others apply it.
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 根/块茎作物 - 土豆
- Wheat, Alfalfa
乔木和灌木种植 - 指定作物:
Longest growing period in days: 180; Longest growing period from month to month: April-September
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): In the past, the orchard site was a sloping land and used for cultivating wheat and potato without soil and water conservation measures. This resulted in soil erosion, soil fertility decline and low crop production.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Due to sloping land, most of the animal manure applied to the crops used to get leached affecting crop production.
Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ct: Tree and shrub cropping
Specification of other vegetative measures: fruit trees and alfalfa
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear, scattered / dispersed
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content
Main causes of degradation: soil management (Agriculure on sloping land without conservation measures), disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff) (Due to sloping land), education, access to knowledge and support services (Lack of knowledge about sloping agriculture land soil and water conservation technologies)
Layout of the terraced fruit orchard with alfalfa crop.
Location: Shenya, Foladi valley. Bamyan
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 800
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1.3
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2.5
Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: C : perennial crops
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3.5
Trees/ shrubs species: Apple and Apricot
Perennial crops species: Alfalfa
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 2%
Terrace: bench level
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 4
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 43
Bund/ bank: graded
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 1.3
Construction material (earth): for making terraces
Construction material (stone): for making risers
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 2%
Change of land use type: Conversion of annual cropland into perennial fruit orchard with perennial fodder crop
Rohullah Zahedi, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, Afghanistan
|1.||Plantation of saplings||Late Autumn or early spring|
|2.||Plantation of alfalfa||early spring|
|3.||Construction of terraces||Dry season|
|劳动力||Construction of terraces||persons/day/ha||400.0||400.0||160000.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Plantation of saplings||pieces/ha||800.0||150.0||120000.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Plantation of alfalfa||kg/ha||100.0||250.0||25000.0||100.0|
|1.||Fertilizer application only||Spring|
|肥料和杀菌剂||Fertilizer application only||kg/ha||800.0||16.0||12800.0||100.0|
The costs are extrapolated for 1 ha. Current (2014) labour and currency exchange rates were used for calculations.
Labour for construction work is the most determinate factor affection costs.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Most rainfall is recorded in the months of April and May. Rainy season begins in April and ends in June.
Thermal climate class: temperate. Temperatures can drop to below -22 degree centigrade
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Landforms: Level terraces
Altitudinal zone: About 2600 m above mean sea level
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is medium due to use of manure, fertilizer and also alfalfa
Soil drainage / infiltration is good due to vegetation
Soil water storage capacity is medium
Availability of surface water: Access to irrigation water canal
Water quality (untreated): From the canal.
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Many works concerning orchard maintenance and harvesting are done by women as well.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
Off-farm income specification: Mainly land users with large irrigated agriculture land holdings. The majority of the population has less than 1 ha land thus off-farm income seems to be very important.
Level of mechanization: He performed with his son and family
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
2-5 ha: This applies to a very small extent of the population like this land user
Water use rights are common and organised. The village has access to sufficient irrigation water throughout the year.
Due to alfalfa consumption
Pruned twigs can be used for firewood
Due to more income and production
Due to greenery and sound of birds.
Farmer to farmer knowledge exchange
livelihood and human well-being
The technology help in increased income which can be used for buying food. Families consume more and a greater variety of foods which is beneficial for health.
More species, cultivated and natural
|Fruit tress are sensitive to frost||不好|
1 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: There are other 20 land user families in the region who has applied this technology.
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: There is a small but growing trend towards spontaneous adoption of the technology among farmers with access to irrigated lands.
The technology has multiple benefits and needs less labour inputs.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The technology system can be enhanced by including honeybee keeping.
Reduced soil erosion and improved water
management compared to sloping agricultural land.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Efficient use of water by the application of mulching and pitcher irrigation. Use of well decomposed compost for increasing production and reinforcement of soil quality. Reduced usage of chemical fertilizer.
The technology can be easily applied.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Exposure visit of farmers to improved orchard cultivation practices.
Including perennial fodder crop like alfalfa has multiple benefits.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Alalfa is a water demanding crop. Other nitrogen perennial high quality perennial crops like sainfoin could be tried by the farmer.
The demand for fruits is high, therefore, it contributes to the increased income of the farmers.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Production could be increased through better orchard management. Farmers may need training and information on improved methods through agriculture extension departments and concerned non-governmental organisations.
|Fruit trees are sensitive to frost.||Relevant research organisations need to develop tolerant varieties through participatory technology approach. Sharing better practices from other countries may be useful.|
|The technology depends on a constant supply of irrigation water.||Demonstration of improved orchards with a focus on water conservation and soil nutrient management (use of compost, mulch, pitcher irrigation, etc.)|