技术

Rehabilitation of degraded communal grazing land [尼泊尔]

Kshetigrasta samudayik charan bhumi ko punaruththan (Nepali)

technologies_1492 - 尼泊尔

完整性: 76%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
People and Resource Dynamics Project, Nepal (PARDYP)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - 尼泊尔

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Rehabilitation measures, including eyebrow pits and live fencing, were implemented on degraded communal grazing land to reestablish a protective vegetative cover

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

An area of heavily degraded grazing land was rehabilitated by establishing eyebrow pits to control and harvest runoff, planting trees and grasses, and fencing the site to control grazing. The main purpose was to re-establish vegetative cover on the almost bare, overgrazed site. The site is community land of the 40 households (240 people) of Dhotra village in the Jhikhu Khola watershed. These people are very dependent on this area due to the lack of alternative grazing sites. The rehabilitation site is surrounded by irrigated cropland downstream, grazing land, and degraded sal (Shorea robusta) dominated forest. Rainfed forward-sloping terraces immediately adjoin the site.
About 130 eyebrow pits were dug, together with catch drainage trenches. Several species of grass and fodder were planted along the ridges of the eyebrows and drainage trenches. Contour hedgerows were established between the eyebrow pits and trenches, and trees were planted just below the pits. The maintenance is quite easy: the vegetation needs to be cut back from time to time and the pits cleaned before the pre-monsoon period. The remaining bare areas should be revisited each year and replanted.
The area has a distinct dry season from November to May and a wet monsoon period from June to October. Annual rainfall is around 1200 mm. The site has red soils that are highly weathered and, if not properly managed, are very susceptible to erosion.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

尼泊尔

区域/州/省:

Kavre Palanchok/ Dhotra village, Jhikhu Khola watershed

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果技术均匀分布在一个区域,则指定覆盖的区域(单位为平方千米):

0.019

如果不知道精确的区域,请注明大致覆盖的区域:
  • < 0.1 平方千米(10 公顷)
注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.019 km2.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

The hedgerow technology came from the Philliphines, modified from the SALT (Sloping agriculture land technology) technology. The eye brow pit technology was implemented by the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management in Nepal and was adapted from them. Villagers approached the People and Resource Dynamics Project (PARDYP) for advice. PARDYP assisted, based on experiences made before with rehabilitation experiments under similar conditions. Mainly developed according to theoretical and site specific knowledge.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧:
  • 经营牧场
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The major land use problem is the small per capita landholding size for cropping. These holdings are mostly rainfed, have a low soil fertility status and acidity problems, and are susceptible to erosion. Intense rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season causes considerable soil loss (rill and gully erosion).

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Overgrazing leading to lack of vegetation.

Ranching: Yes

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations

Number of growing seasons per year: 3
Longest growing period in days: 150; Longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Oct; Second longest growing period in days: 120; Second longest growing period from month to month: Nov - Feb

3.3 由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?

由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?:
  • 是(请在技术实施前填写以下有关土地利用的问题)
牧场

牧场

  • Extensive grazing

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 改良的地面/植被覆盖
  • 引水和排水

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

植物措施

植物措施

  • V1:乔木和灌木覆盖层
结构措施

结构措施

  • S4:平沟、坑
管理措施

管理措施

  • M5:物种组成的控制/变化
注释:

Main measures: vegetative measures, structural measures

Secondary measures: management measures

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, in blocks

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
物理性土壤退化

物理性土壤退化

  • Pc:压实
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pc: compaction

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing (insufficient forage supply from the private land.), education, access to knowledge and support services (identification of appropriate SWC technologies and appropriate collaborators)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (for daily household needs ( litter , firewood, timber), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (excessive rainfall during pre-monsoon and monsoon), poverty / wealth (to buy planting materials and for logistics), labour availability (for community level social work)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

Technical drawing of layout of vegetative and structural measures.

Location: "Dhotra" village, near Dhulikhel. Kabhre Palanchok district

Date: July 2004

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: G : grass
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6 m

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 120
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6 m
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 4 m

Trees/ shrubs species: Prunus cerasoides, Michelia champaca, Melia azedarach, Schima wallichii,Cherospondias axillaries

Grass species: Stylosanthes guianensis, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Melinis minutiflora, Brachiaria decu

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 2.00%

Wall/ barrier
Spacing between structures (m): 5-10 m
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-2 m
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1 m
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 1.5-4 m

Bund/ bank: semi-circular/V shaped trapezoidal
Spacing between structures (m): 6 m
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 40-50 cm
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1-1.5m
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2-2.5 m
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 10-30
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-1.5 m
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-2 m

Structural measure: diversion ditch / cut-off drain
Spacing between structures (m): 6 m
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0-30 cm
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 10-30 cm

Construction material (earth): soil resulting from the digging activities were used to construct eyebrow shaped bunds.

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 2%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Other type of management: closing for change of management / intensity level - grazing as well as "symbolic" fencing by small living fence to delineate SWC area.

作者:

A.K. Thaku, Madhav Dhakal

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元
注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

2.00

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Planting of tree seedlings and cuttings and sowing of grass seeds. before onset of monsoon (June)
2. Drawing layout of eyebrow terraces, drainage ditches, hedgerows on the bare land before onset of monsoon (June)
3. Digging holes for eyebrow pits, drainage ditches before onset of monsoon (June)
4. Making sure that all livestock is stall- fed All the time
5. Establishing small live fences with grasses and shrub cuttings before onset of monsoon (June)

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Eyebrow terraces and vegetative measure Persons/day 52.0 2.0 104.0 100.0
植物材料 Seeds ha 1.0 6.0 6.0
植物材料 Seedlings ha 1.0 23.0 23.0
肥料和杀菌剂 Fertilizer ha 1.0 12.0 12.0
其它 Transportation ha 1.0 41.0 41.0
其它 Lunch, tea for farmers ha 1.0 47.0 47.0
技术建立所需总成本 233.0
技术建立总成本,美元 233.0
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. cutting vegetation 3 times /year
2. planting vegetation in any gaps before monsun /annual
3. Cleaning of sediment-filled pits oncea year, before onset of monsoon

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

注释:

Machinery/ tools: hoe, spade,sickle, hoe, spade

All costs and amounts were roughly estimated by the technicians and authors in 2004.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
农业气候带
  • 潮湿的

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Altitudinal zone: 900 m a.s.l.

Slopes on average: Also very steep

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 细粒/重质(粘土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil depth on average is variable

Soil texture: red soils with high clay content

Soil fertility was very low before implementation of rehabilitation activities

Topsoil organic matter was low before implementation of rehabilitation activities

Soil drainage / infiltration was poor before implementation of rehabilitation activities

Soil water storage capacity was very low before implementation of rehabilitation activities

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地表水的可用性:

匮乏/没有

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Water quality (untreated): More in rainy season (June- September), less in April/May

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 200-500 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

95% of the land users are average wealthy.
3% of the land users are poor.
2% of the land users are poor.

Off-farm income specification: In most farm households, off-farm income plays at least a minor and
increasingly a major role. Occasional opportunities for off-farm income present themselves in the form of daily
labour wages. Some households’ members receive regular salaries, whilst an increasing number of Nepalis are
working in India, the Middle East, Malaysia, and elsewhere and sending remittance incomes home.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的
注释:

Only limited grazing area for whole village

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

收入和成本

农业收入

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Increased carrying capacity of land; about $17 was collected from selling grass seeds and grass

社会文化影响

社区机构

削弱
加强
注释/具体说明:

collected money used for social work

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良

冲突缓解

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

At the beginning a few people opposed the activities

生态影响

水循环/径流

多余水的排放

减少
改良
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

about 80 percent bare land covered by the various grasses

土壤流失

增加
降低

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

下游淤积

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

into irrigation canal downstream

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨 不好
局地风暴 未知
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 不好
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 未知

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期 不好

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

中性/平衡

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

中性/平衡

长期回报:

积极

注释:

The high establishment costs of the technology means that the shortterm benefit for the community only matches the costs involved. In the long-term the environmental benefit of rehabilitated land is high and economically it is positive.

6.5 技术采用

  • > 50%
如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

40 households in an area of 0.019 sq km

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 0-10%
注释:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

40 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: No initiative could be seen in the area , but inerst is there.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
The technology already started generating income from the degraded land.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? In the long run, by selling grass and grass seed, funds can be generated.
The technology is effective against land degradation.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? More tree and fruit species should be added and grass species multiplied to cover the remaining bare land
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
The technology package is easy to apply as it does not need much knowledge and is cost effective.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Regular maintenance of the structure and grasses is required
Improvement can be seen fast and easily; the vegetation cover increased and the loss of top soil decreased.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? As above

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Nakarmi, G. (2000) Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Middle Mountains of Nepal, a report submitted to PARDYP, ICIMOD, Kathmandu.

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

ICIMOD

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Schreier, H.; Brown, S.; Shah, P. B.; Shrestha, B.; Merz, J. (2002) Jhikhu Khola Watershed – Nepal, CD ROM. Vancouver: Institute for Resources and Environment, University of British Columbia.

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

ICIMOD

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Shrestha, B. (2004) Progress Report PARDYP-Nepal. Paper presented at the PARDYP – Access Mid Year Meeting, 19-22 July 2004, ICIMOD, Kathmandu.

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