有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）People and Resource Dynamics Project, Nepal (PARDYP)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - 尼泊尔
Rehabilitation measures, including eyebrow pits and live fencing, were implemented on degraded communal grazing land to reestablish a protective vegetative cover
An area of heavily degraded grazing land was rehabilitated by establishing eyebrow pits to control and harvest runoff, planting trees and grasses, and fencing the site to control grazing. The main purpose was to re-establish vegetative cover on the almost bare, overgrazed site. The site is community land of the 40 households (240 people) of Dhotra village in the Jhikhu Khola watershed. These people are very dependent on this area due to the lack of alternative grazing sites. The rehabilitation site is surrounded by irrigated cropland downstream, grazing land, and degraded sal (Shorea robusta) dominated forest. Rainfed forward-sloping terraces immediately adjoin the site.
About 130 eyebrow pits were dug, together with catch drainage trenches. Several species of grass and fodder were planted along the ridges of the eyebrows and drainage trenches. Contour hedgerows were established between the eyebrow pits and trenches, and trees were planted just below the pits. The maintenance is quite easy: the vegetation needs to be cut back from time to time and the pits cleaned before the pre-monsoon period. The remaining bare areas should be revisited each year and replanted.
The area has a distinct dry season from November to May and a wet monsoon period from June to October. Annual rainfall is around 1200 mm. The site has red soils that are highly weathered and, if not properly managed, are very susceptible to erosion.
Kavre Palanchok/ Dhotra village, Jhikhu Khola watershed
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.019 km2.
The hedgerow technology came from the Philliphines, modified from the SALT (Sloping agriculture land technology) technology. The eye brow pit technology was implemented by the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management in Nepal and was adapted from them. Villagers approached the People and Resource Dynamics Project (PARDYP) for advice. PARDYP assisted, based on experiences made before with rehabilitation experiments under similar conditions. Mainly developed according to theoretical and site specific knowledge.
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The major land use problem is the small per capita landholding size for cropping. These holdings are mostly rainfed, have a low soil fertility status and acidity problems, and are susceptible to erosion. Intense rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season causes considerable soil loss (rill and gully erosion).
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Overgrazing leading to lack of vegetation.
Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations
Number of growing seasons per year: 3
Longest growing period in days: 150; Longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Oct; Second longest growing period in days: 120; Second longest growing period from month to month: Nov - Feb
- Extensive grazing
Main measures: vegetative measures, structural measures
Secondary measures: management measures
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, in blocks
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pc: compaction
Main causes of degradation: overgrazing (insufficient forage supply from the private land.), education, access to knowledge and support services (identification of appropriate SWC technologies and appropriate collaborators)
Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (for daily household needs ( litter , firewood, timber), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (excessive rainfall during pre-monsoon and monsoon), poverty / wealth (to buy planting materials and for logistics), labour availability (for community level social work)
Technical drawing of layout of vegetative and structural measures.
Location: "Dhotra" village, near Dhulikhel. Kabhre Palanchok district
Date: July 2004
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter
Vegetative material: G : grass
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6 m
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 120
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6 m
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 4 m
Trees/ shrubs species: Prunus cerasoides, Michelia champaca, Melia azedarach, Schima wallichii,Cherospondias axillaries
Grass species: Stylosanthes guianensis, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Melinis minutiflora, Brachiaria decu
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20.00%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 2.00%
Spacing between structures (m): 5-10 m
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-2 m
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1 m
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 1.5-4 m
Bund/ bank: semi-circular/V shaped trapezoidal
Spacing between structures (m): 6 m
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 40-50 cm
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1-1.5m
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2-2.5 m
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 10-30
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-1.5 m
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-2 m
Structural measure: diversion ditch / cut-off drain
Spacing between structures (m): 6 m
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0-30 cm
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 10-30 cm
Construction material (earth): soil resulting from the digging activities were used to construct eyebrow shaped bunds.
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20%
Lateral gradient along the structure: 2%
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.
Other type of management: closing for change of management / intensity level - grazing as well as "symbolic" fencing by small living fence to delineate SWC area.
A.K. Thaku, Madhav Dhakal
|1.||Planting of tree seedlings and cuttings and sowing of grass seeds.||before onset of monsoon (June)|
|2.||Drawing layout of eyebrow terraces, drainage ditches, hedgerows on the bare land||before onset of monsoon (June)|
|3.||Digging holes for eyebrow pits, drainage ditches||before onset of monsoon (June)|
|4.||Making sure that all livestock is stall- fed||All the time|
|5.||Establishing small live fences with grasses and shrub cuttings||before onset of monsoon (June)|
|劳动力||Eyebrow terraces and vegetative measure||Persons/day||52.0||2.0||104.0||100.0|
|其它||Lunch, tea for farmers||ha||1.0||47.0||47.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)
|1.||cutting vegetation||3 times /year|
|2.||planting vegetation in any gaps||before monsun /annual|
|3.||Cleaning of sediment-filled pits||oncea year, before onset of monsoon|
Machinery/ tools: hoe, spade,sickle, hoe, spade
All costs and amounts were roughly estimated by the technicians and authors in 2004.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: subtropics
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Altitudinal zone: 900 m a.s.l.
Slopes on average: Also very steep
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil depth on average is variable
Soil texture: red soils with high clay content
Soil fertility was very low before implementation of rehabilitation activities
Topsoil organic matter was low before implementation of rehabilitation activities
Soil drainage / infiltration was poor before implementation of rehabilitation activities
Soil water storage capacity was very low before implementation of rehabilitation activities
Water quality (untreated): More in rainy season (June- September), less in April/May
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
95% of the land users are average wealthy.
3% of the land users are poor.
2% of the land users are poor.
Off-farm income specification: In most farm households, off-farm income plays at least a minor and
increasingly a major role. Occasional opportunities for off-farm income present themselves in the form of daily
labour wages. Some households’ members receive regular salaries, whilst an increasing number of Nepalis are
working in India, the Middle East, Malaysia, and elsewhere and sending remittance incomes home.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Only limited grazing area for whole village
Increased carrying capacity of land; about $17 was collected from selling grass seeds and grass
collected money used for social work
At the beginning a few people opposed the activities
about 80 percent bare land covered by the various grasses
into irrigation canal downstream
The high establishment costs of the technology means that the shortterm benefit for the community only matches the costs involved. In the long-term the environmental benefit of rehabilitated land is high and economically it is positive.
- > 50%
40 households in an area of 0.019 sq km
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
40 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: No initiative could be seen in the area , but inerst is there.
The technology already started generating income from the degraded land.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? In the long run, by selling grass and grass seed, funds can be generated.
The technology is effective against land degradation.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? More tree and fruit species should be added and grass species multiplied to cover the remaining bare land
The technology package is easy to apply as it does not need much knowledge and is cost effective.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Regular maintenance of the structure and grasses is required
Improvement can be seen fast and easily; the vegetation cover increased and the loss of top soil decreased.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? As above
Nakarmi, G. (2000) Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Middle Mountains of Nepal, a report submitted to PARDYP, ICIMOD, Kathmandu.
Schreier, H.; Brown, S.; Shah, P. B.; Shrestha, B.; Merz, J. (2002) Jhikhu Khola Watershed – Nepal, CD ROM. Vancouver: Institute for Resources and Environment, University of British Columbia.
Shrestha, B. (2004) Progress Report PARDYP-Nepal. Paper presented at the PARDYP – Access Mid Year Meeting, 19-22 July 2004, ICIMOD, Kathmandu.