技术

Trenches [乌干达]

Emifuregye

technologies_1561 - 乌干达

完整性: 65%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Mugabe Albert

Ntungamo District

乌干达

SLM专业人员:

Mazimakwo Kukundakwe

Kabale District

乌干达

SLM专业人员:

Pollina Elijah

Rwerazi matooke group association

乌干达

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - 意大利
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Rwerazi matooke group association - 乌干达

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

Construction of trenches in cropland.
approaches

Construction of trenches in cropland. [乌干达]

Farmer field facilitators mobilized and sensitized the land users on the need to control soil erosion in banana plantations and to conserve moisture in the soil.

  • 编制者: Wilson Bamwerinde

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Digging trenches on a gentle slope in banana plantation in Rwerazi.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Trenches dug at 2 ft. wide and 20m long in a banana plantation . Twelve trenches at a distance of 10m each in about 7 acres to control water runoff and soil erosion.

Purpose of the Technology: Trenches to contain and collect heavy water runoff. To reduce loss of top soil and increase soil fertility for perennial crops, thus increasing productivity.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Kagera TAMP initiative for the use of trenches by land users of Rwerazi matoke association , with hoes, spades, pangas digging trenches of 2ft deep , 2.5 ft wide and 20m long at a space of 10m in a banana planation.

The trenches are of 2 types, Fanya juu and Fanya kin.

Natural / human environment: The area is gentle sloping susceptible to water runoff leading to enough loam sopils in in good banana planation.

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

乌干达

区域/州/省:

Uganda

有关地点的进一步说明:

Ntungamo-Rukoni

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果不知道精确的区域,请注明大致覆盖的区域:
  • 1-10 平方千米
注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 2 km2.

The technology is practiced in Rwerazi and Kitwe town council among farmer field school members in those localities.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 10-50年前

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

-Introduced through UNIFA & FAO Kagera /TAMP projects.
-Training in use of trenches in 1991 and group cohesion in 1995.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
  • 多年一作(非木材)
多年生(非木质)作物 - 指定作物:
  • 香蕉/芭蕉/蕉麻
每年的生长季节数:
  • 2
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 150 Longest growing period from month to month: September to December.Second longest growing period in days: 90 Second longest growing period from month to month: March to May.

注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Increased runoff and lack of soil and water conservation would lead to loss of productive top soil, desertification leading to soil infertility and climatic change.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Technology is effective in banana plantation.

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 横坡措施

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

结构措施

结构措施

  • S3:分级沟渠、渠道、水道
  • S4:平沟、坑
注释:

Main measures: structural measures

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
化学性土壤退化

化学性土壤退化

  • Cn:肥力下降和有机质含量下降(非侵蚀所致)
水质恶化

水质恶化

  • Ha:干旱化
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: soil management (To prevent degradation of land & water banana planation.)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化
  • 减少土地退化
注释:

Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (Technical person needs to demonstrate the technology.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard

Secondary technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Structural measure: Trenches
Vertical interval between structures (m): N/A
Spacing between structures (m): 10
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.76
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 6.09
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): N/A
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): N/A
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): N/A

Construction material (earth): Digging a trench on earth surface.

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

Ugshs

如相关,注明美元与当地货币的汇率(例如1美元=79.9巴西雷亚尔):1美元=:

2600.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

1.15

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Digging trenches 2012 September

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 92.3 92.3 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 9.4 9.4
技术建立所需总成本 101.7
技术建立总成本,美元 0.04
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. Digging trenches April 2012
注释:

The land user does not meet the maintenance costs of old existing trenches but establishes /digs new trenches after every 2 years when the old trenches are filled with silt. He believes that old filled trenches should not be worked upon as they are filled with manure and nutrients. By digging new trenches ,the land user meets the new establishment and construction costs.

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 15.3 15.3
技术维护所需总成本 15.3
技术维护总成本,美元 0.01
注释:

Machinery/ tools: Hoes,spades, pick axe are used to construct and maintain the trenches.

The costs are the total costs for construction and maintenance of the technology for each land user for area of about 1 ha and were estimated as of 19/04/2013.

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

-Human labor is scarce.
-High cost of labor.
-Land users require constant monitoring & mobilization.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

Rainy season . September to December & March to May.

农业气候带
  • 半湿润

Thermal climate class: tropics. Tropics (Temperature mean annual of 18°C to 24°C)
Bi-modal rainfall. 180-269 days.

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 凹陷情况
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Altitudinal zone: The technology is carried out in areas of 1000 to 1500 m.a.s.l.
Slopes on average: Gentle (The technology is appropriate in gentle sloping areas)

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Population density: 100-200 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
30% of the land users are rich (Income records 1,750,000 shs monthly.).
40% of the land users are average wealthy (average monthly income of less than 1,000,000shs).
30% of the land users are poor.

Off-farm income specification: most land users' income is from farm.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (family and hired casual labour depending on season)
Market orientation: Mixed (300 bunches sold, 30 eaten monthly on average)

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的
注释:

On average households have medium sized banana plantation.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 个人
注释:

Land inherited untitled land from his father and others have individual and freehold.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

20kg

注释/具体说明:

30 to 50kg/bunch of banana.

收入和成本

农业投入费用

增加
降低

工作量

增加
降低

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

20kg+

注释/具体说明:

increase in banana bunch size.

冲突缓解

恶化
改良

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

The land users have permanent houses and a car as the technology has improved household through improved production and income.

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低

多余水的排放

减少
改良

地下水位/含水层

下降
补水
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤流失

增加
降低

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

积极

注释:

Land users have had increased banana bunch size and improved quality

6.5 技术采用

注释:

Comments on acceptance with external material support: Some land users got external assistance ,others individually implemented the activity.

20% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: 20% of land users in Rwerazi matooke group voluntarily implement the technology . 66.7% are not implementing the technology.

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: As most of land users still lack some of the inputs and material support.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
It increases productivity.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Regulates maintenance of trenches.
It maintains manure in the banana plantation.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Regular maintenance of trenches.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
It control water runoff.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? By digging and repairing the trenches regularly.
Stores water which slowly seeps in the soil.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? By digging and repairing the trenches regularly.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

模块