技术

Stone lines [乌干达]

Ennyiriri z'amayinja eziziyiza ettaka okutwalibwa enkuba (Luganda)

technologies_1589 - 乌干达

完整性: 78%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
FAO (FAO) - 意大利

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Stone lines are built along a contour to control soil erosion on a degraded steep slope.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Most of the traditional cropland in Rakai District is fairly flat. However, there are many hectares of very steep, stony, wind-swept slopes facing the Kagera River Valley and Lake Victoria. These slopes have been degraded for a long time because when it rains the runoff is very fast and carries away soil and crops. The swampy Kagera river flood plains below the slopes are fertile because of the deposits of top soil carried from the slopes. Over the last 3 years, farmers have changed from the traditional farming practice where cultivation was done with little or no protection of soil and water movement on the steep slopes to using stone lines along a contour. The stone lines are arranged along the contour to act as a barrier that slows down the speed of water and soil, improve infiltration, mitigate land slides and trap sediment thereby reducing the extent of erosion.

Purpose of the Technology: The technical objective of stone lines is to minimize water and soil movement down the slope and, over time, enable the building of a terrace from the accumulation of soil on the upper side of the barrier.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The stones are arranged along the contour, guided by a rope. The contour is determined using an A-Frame. The other tools required to establish stone lines are hand hoes, pick axes, and pangas. Establishment requires a lot of labor by which the following activities are accomplished: (i) stones exposed by decades of runoff on hillsides are dug up, collected and placed along contours in a field 200 m by 300 m. The width of each stone line is 0.4 m to 0.6 m and 0.5 m high. The length is dependent on the size of the field across the slope. The spacing from one line to another is 8 m to 12 m, depending on the steepness of the slope. (ii) The exposed sandy loam top soil is very dry and dusty even in the rainy season. Digging with hand hoes loosens the soil. (iii) Following the contour, circular pits of 0.45 m diameter and 0.3 m depth are dug 1.50 m apart, in the middle of every 2 stone lines. In these holes, robusta coffee seedlings are planted. (iv) Beans may be planted throughout the field as a cover crop. The farmer field school (FFS) approach is used because many farmers participate together in completing the establishment tasks. The stone lines are maintained by ensuring that stones which move off the main line are put back and the weeds which grow among the stones are removed to avoid competition with the main crops.

Natural / human environment: There is no known threat to stone lines once they have been established. The runoff cannot gather enough speed between the lines to sweep the stones away because of the short distance. The main offsite benefit is that sediment deposits and water runoff do not destroy crops in the valley below and the Kagera River is protected from silting.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

乌干达

区域/州/省:

Uganda

有关地点的进一步说明:

Rakai District

注释:

Boundary points of the Technology area: -0.96681 31.69066; -0.96706 31.69111; -0.96717 31.69033; -0.96757 31.69038; -0.96774 31.69073

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.06 km2.

Currently about 3 ha but the area is still being expanded by the farmers.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Introduced and supported by Kagera TAMP as an SLM technology

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
  • 多年一作(非木材)
  • 乔木与灌木的种植
年作 - 具体指明作物:
  • 谷物类 - 玉米
  • 豆科牧草和豆类 - 豆子
  • 根/块茎作物 - 土豆
多年生(非木质)作物 - 指定作物:
  • 香蕉/芭蕉/蕉麻
乔木和灌木种植 - 指定作物:
  • 咖啡,露天种植
每年的生长季节数:
  • 2
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 150 Longest growing period from month to month: February to June Second longest growing period in days: 120 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to November

注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Surface soil erosion is rampant, carrying away all the top soil with valuable nutrients towards to the marshes below.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The land is infertile and no crops can grow in that area.

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 横坡措施

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

结构措施

结构措施

  • S6:墙、障碍物、栅栏、围墙
注释:

Main measures: structural measures

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
  • Wo:场外劣化效应
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wo: offsite degradation effects

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Deforestation for fuel wood and agricultural land), education, access to knowledge and support services (inadequate agricultural extension services)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 减少土地退化
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地
注释:

Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

Stone lines on a steep slope. In between is a young coffee plantation.

Location: Katongero. Rakai District

Date: 5-DEC-2013

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (Technical skill required is keeping the line on the contour)

Technical knowledge required for land users: low (No prior knowledge required)

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, increase of infiltration, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, water harvesting / increase water supply

Wall/ barrier
Vertical interval between structures (m): 3
Spacing between structures (m): n/a
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): n/a
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): n/a
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): n/a
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 300

Construction material (stone): Big and small stones piled to 0.3 m high, 300 m along a contour

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 38-45%

Lateral gradient along the structure: < 1%

作者:

Byonabye Proscovia, Kagera TAMP, Kabale

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

UGX

如相关,注明美元与当地货币的汇率(例如1美元=79.9巴西雷亚尔):1美元=:

2500.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

10000.00

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Collection and laying of stones Dry season

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 1200.0 1200.0 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 60.0 60.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 1260.0
技术建立总成本,美元 0.5
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. Repair of lines wet season

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 120.0 120.0 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 120.0
技术维护总成本,美元 0.05
注释:

Machinery/ tools: n/a

The calculations reflect costs of establishing the technology on a steep slope (38% to 45%) in December of 2013.

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Labor is the factor that influences costs. Digging up and carrying stones up and across slopes is a labor intensive activity.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

1501-2000 mm (Ranked 1, 1950 mm)
1001-1500 mm (Ranked 2, To a limited extend)

农业气候带
  • 潮湿的

Thermal climate class: tropics. LGP >270 days

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 凹陷情况
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Altitudinal zone: 1001-1500 m a.s.l. (1270 m to 1300 m a.s.l.)
Slopes on average: Steep (ranked 1, the slopes of Rakai district where the technology is applied are steep) and moderate (ranked 2, to a limited extent, towards the top of the hill)

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil fertility: Medium
Soil drainage/infiltration: Good
Soil water storage capacity: Low

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

> 50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Men and women work together
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
and own 20% of the land.
and own 20% of the land.
70% of the land users are average wealthy and own 50% of the land (All land users currently applying the technology are average users).
and own 10% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Farming is mostly subsistence
Level of mechanization: Manual work (no other form is used in the area)
Market orientation: Subsistence (mostly)

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的
注释:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: Also 1-2 ha and 5-15 ha (both ranked 2)

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加

生产区域

降低
增加
收入和成本

农业收入

降低
增加

工作量

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

The hard labor is a challenge to women and children who play a major role in cultivation

社会文化影响

社区机构

削弱
加强

冲突缓解

恶化
改良

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
Increased
注释/具体说明:

There is more arable land, reducing pressure on land and generally improving productivity.

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤流失

增加
降低

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
生物多样性:植被、动物

生物量/地上C

降低
增加

植物多样性

降低
增加

害虫/疾病控制

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

May harbor weeds and crop pests

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

下游洪水

增加
减少

下游淤积

增加
降低

地下水/河流污染

增加
减少

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期
注释:

n/a

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
长期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
长期回报:

非常积极

6.5 技术采用

如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

15

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 91-100%
注释:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

15 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Adoption has been spontaneous, through farmer to farmer learning

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: The technology has been mainly taken up by members of Farmer Field School. The labor cost makes it too demanding for an individual but some households with several members in the family have adopted outside the FFS method.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Having more land means more options for crop diversity

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Scale up the technology
There is improved food security

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Establish stone lines on more disused land
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Increases cropland available for cultivation

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Sustain adoption through farmer-to-farmer visits
Increases rain water infiltration, reducing flooding offsite

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage government to scale up the technology
Stone lines are robust and require little maintenance once established

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Help farmers adopt because sustainability is easy
Offsite benefits are as important as they are onsite

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage catchment level participation including downstream farmers

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
It has become more expensive to hire labor for other farm activities Work in groups, one farm at a time
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Expensive to the farmer Help government and the private sector to subsidize cost to the farmer
Labor to dig up and transport stones is very heavy Encourage community level approach like Farmer field School

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Kagera TAMP project website

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/

模块